CONTENTS:Hypothesis. Page 1
The Concentric Model Page 2
The Sector Model Page 3
Data Compilation Page 4
Transect Map Page 5
Duke Street Photograph Page 7
Duke Street Data Page 8
Duke Street Environmental Survey Graph Page 10
Duke Street Housing Survey Graph Page 11
City Road Photograph Page 13
City Road Data Page 14
City Road Environmental Survey Graph Page 16
City Road Housing Survey Graph Page 17
Manor Estate Photograph Page 19
Manor Estate Data Page 20
Manor Estate Environmental Survey Graph Page 22
Manor Estate Housing Survey Graph Page 23
Frecheville Photograph Page 25
Frecheville Data Page 26
Frecheville Environmental Survey Graph Page 28
Frecheville Housing Survey Graph Page 29
Mosborough Photograph Page 31
Mosborough Data Page 32
Mosborough Environmental Survey Graph Page 34
Mosborough Housing Survey Graph Page 35
Price and Quality Research Page 36
Price Range Graph Page 42
Environmental Survey Graph Page 44
Housing Survey Graph Page 45
Distance from City Centre Environmental Graph Page 47
Distance from City Centre Housing Graph Page 48
Conclusion Page 49HYPOTHESISThe style of housing changes and the quality ofthe housing environment improves withincreasing distance from the town centre.Is this true for Sheffield
The Concentric ModelThere are two main theories as to how a city develops. One is the Burgees concentric model. This theory states that as a city grows it will develop ring shaped zones surrounding the Central Business District (C.B.D), separated by financial value and age. The first ring around the C.B.D is the wholesale light manufacturing (transitional). Past this is the low class residential housing, where the old inner city once was. Around this is the medium class residential housing that was built during the inter-war period. Finally, past this is the high class residential housing, or modern suburbia. This is shown in the following diagram:KEY Central Business District. (C.B.D)
Wholesale Light Manufacturing. (Transitional)
Low Class Residential. (Old Inner City)
Medium Class Residential. (Inter-war areas)
High Class Residential. (Modern Suburbia)
The Sector ModelThe second theory as to how city develops is the Hoyt Sector Model. The person that theorised this believed that around the Central Business District (C.B.D) there would develop branch shaped zones of the same residential or industrial financial value. Once one area has established itself as a particular zone, then more houses or factories of the same financial value would build around this. This is shown in the diagram below:[pic]
KEY Central Business District. (C.B.D)
Wholesale Light Manufacturing. (Transitional)
Low Class Residential. (Old Inner City)
Medium Class Residential. (Inter-war areas)
High Class Residential. (Modern Suburbia)Data CompilationTo accurately confirm or deny that the hypothesis is correct, I must first survey and collect data on several different points throughout the city of Sheffield. I will start at a point just outside the C.B.D and travel towards suburbia, surveying five separate areas for housing style and housing environmental quality. These five places are:Duke StreetCity RoadManorFrechevilleMosboroughIf the hypothesis is correct then my results should resemble what would be expected from the concentric model. The results would show that as the distance from the C.B.D increases, the housing style and environment should change and improve.If the hypothesis is incorrect then my results should resemble what would be expected from the sector model. The results would show that, because of the branched system, as the distance from the C.B.D increases the basic housing style and environment should remain very similar.On the following page is a trasnsect map of the areas I visited and surveyed.
DUKE STREETThe houses on a small road just off of Duke Street were built in the late 19th century. They were built small and economically so that local workers could live very close to their place of work (most likely a steelworks), so they could have easy access to it. The houses were built very simply with few rooms, no indoor toilet, no electricity and no running water. The houses were built in long rows of terraced houses which were sometimes also built back-to-back, with slate roofs, no front garden and occasionally only a small back yard.The reason the houses were built so small and closely packed together was to save money on land costs and so that more people could live in smaller spaces. At the time these houses were constructed there was no such thing as street lighting, only small cobbled streets and no garages as the horse and carriage was still in use.HOUSING QUALITYMany of these houses have since been demolished but the ones that still stand now have all of the modern conveniences we take for granted, such as mains gas, running hot and cold water, electricity, street lighting, tarmaced roads and double glazed windows. However, the houses are still very small in comparison to new modern homes, and they lack gardens and garages causing cars to park on the roadsides.Looking at the photograph of Duke Street you can see that nearly all the houses have got skylights in the attic which will have been converted to provide extra space in the house. Also, looking at the photograph you can see that the owners of the houses have very little privacy because of the public footpath that goes directly past the windows and doors.I have conducted a survey on housing quality which is on the following pagesENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYAs these houses are almost in the city centre there are no play areas or fields for children, added to the fact that there is a main road just to the right of this photo proves that this is far from a suitable location for a family raising a child to live. It may not be quite as apparent but the appearance of the area is quite poor. There is litter on the floor and graffiti written on most buildings, with no trees in the street and no areas of natural beauty to be admired.On a more positive view of this particular zone there are many shops and supermarkets just of few minutes walk from here. As this street is quite close to the C.B.D there is also an excellent public transport service provided because most major bus routes intersect at this point.I have conducted a survey on envrionmental quality which is on the following pagesCITY ROADThe houses on City Road were built several years after those on Duke Street. These were built in the early 20th century. They were built slightly bigger than those on Duke Street but were still built as terraced houses in long rows. The purpose of the houses was again so that local workers could live very close to their place of work so they could have easy access to it. These houses were built slightly larger with some of the modern conveniences such as an indoor toilet, electricity and running hot and cold water. The hot water was boiled in a small back boiler that was placed behind the coal fire that would have been in the living room.HOUSING QUALITYAs you may be able to see these houses also have small gardens in front and behind the house providing slightly more privacy to the owners. At the time these houses were constructed there would have been street lighting, and the streets may have even been tarmaced due to the increasing popularity of the car. The houses on City Road do not have garages which would suggest that these houses were still designed for the working class who were not expected to own a car.Most of the houses built in this era still stand and are used to this day. However, the houses are still very small in comparison to new modern homes, and they lack garages causing cars to park on the roadsides.Looking at the photograph of City Road you can see that over half of all the houses have got skylights in the attic which will have been converted to provide extra space in the house.I have conducted a survey on housing quality which is on the following pagesENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYThese houses are only one and a half kilometres from Duke Street and are still not very far from the city centre. There are still very few play areas or fields for children to play on.The physical appearance of this area is slightly better. There is less litter and the quality of the roads and pavements is also better. The fact that the houses have small gardens gives the road a more homely feeling and improves the overall appearance. There would not be any trees in the street or areas of natural beauty in this photograph if it was not for the cemetery that can be seen just to the right of this photograph.There are many shops and supermarkets just of few minutes walk from this location. As this street is also quite close to the C.B.D there is also an excellent public transport service provided because most major bus routes intersect at this point.I have conducted a survey on envrionmental quality which is on the following pages
THE MANORThe houses on The Manor were built in the inter-war period. At the time these were built they were the finest housing ever built for the working man in the entire UK. These houses were built as large semi-detached housing with many rooms. The houses were built with the highest quality materials available at the time and the houses have a great deal of privacy compared to the other two previous locations due to the fact that each house has a medium sized garden in front and behind the house.HOUSING QUALITYThe estate will have been built with tarmaced roads and pavements with street lighting. There is grass and trees lining the streets with a space provided to park a car beside every house, suggesting that by this time it was quite common for a working family to own a car. These houses were built with nearly all of the modern conveniences such as electricity, an indoor toilet and hot and cold running water. The hot water was still boiled in a small back boiler that was placed behind the coal fire that would have been in the living room.All of these houses have been recently completely refurbished inside with new double glazed windows installed, and a simple overhaul of the entire house. The houses however have remained basically the same as when they were built around 70 years ago.I have conducted a survey on housing quality which is on the following pagesENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYThe physical appearance of this estate is yet again substantially better than any of the sites I have visited so far. There are large grassed fields throughout the entire estate with parks and play areas for children scattered throughout. There is very little litter and graffiti on this part of the Manor Estate.The distance from City Road and the Manor Estate is only around one kilometre but the quality of the housing and surrounding areas in comparison is huge.
The estate has no traffic passing through or even near it, with no danger from any industrial sites that are close by. This estate seems to be a very good area to raise a child.The public transport system and shopping areas is slightly harder to have access to as it is not as close to the Central Business District (CBD) as City Road or Duke Street.I have conducted a survey on envrionmental quality which is on the following pagesFRECHEVILLEThe houses in the Frecheville area were built in the mid thirty??™s, slightly after those on the Manor Estate. These houses were built as large semi-detached homes, much like those on the Manor, but with maximum privacy for the owners in mind.HOUSING QUALITYEach house has a medium sized front and back garden with trees and bushes lining the entire street. The actual buildings are largely spaced out with gardens and sometimes garages separating each one. The streets will have been built tarmaced and with electrical street lighting.The majority of the houses in the Frecheville area have no garages so this suggests that those who do have one built them after the original construction of the house. Each house does however have a drive for cars to park on.These houses were some of the first middle class housing to be built with mains gas in Sheffield. They were also built with practically all of the modern conveniences such as electricity, an indoor toilet and hot and cold running water. The hot water was yet again boiled in a small back boiler that was placed behind the coal fire that would have been in the living room.I have conducted a survey on housing quality which is on the following pagesENVIRONMETAL QUALITYThe Frecheville area has no main roads with traffic passing through it, and there is absolutely no danger from any industrial sites as there are none. There are many open public spaces, there is a fishing pond, a bowling green and several playing areas, with practically no litter or graffiti and no overgrown fields. The Frecheville area was obviously built with the idea of trying to give a community spirit. This area is an excellent area to raise a child.
The distance from the Manor Estate and Frecheville is several kilometres. This is quite apparent as the difference in the quality of the housing and surrounding areas is huge.The public transport system and shopping areas is slightly harder to have access to because it is not very close to the Central Business District (CBD). There are however many local corner shops and shopping centres only several minutes walk away.I have conducted a survey on envrionmental quality which is on the following pages
MOSBOROUGHThe majority of houses in Mosborough have been built within the last ten to twenty years, with the occasional house that was built in the last century as a country house.HOUSING QUALITYThese houses have been built either as large semi-detached or detached houses. These houses give the owner the greatest privacy that has been seen so far. Each house has a medium to large sized front and back garden with trees and bushes lining many streets. The more modern estates also incorporate a cul-de-sac system. This is where small branches of streets break of so that the only people and cars that go into the cul-de-sacs are the people that live there. This largely cuts down any traffic and provides excellent privacy and safety for the owners of the houses.These houses are very well spaced out with gardens and garages separating each one. The streets were all built tarmaced and with electrical street lighting. In the more recently built estates all of the houses are built with one and sometimes two garages. In the slightly older estates, only some of the houses have garages. The houses that don??™t have a garage do however have a drive for cars to park on, leaving the roads clear of parked vehicles.These houses were and are built with every single modern convenience that is available such as electricity, several indoor toilets and hot and cold running water. These houses are also the first generation of houses to be built with phone lines into the house when it was constructed. Before now people bought the phones and phone sockets after they moved into a house. The same applies for gas boilers which provide central heating. Only the more recent houses have been built with gas boilers. In the older houses, boilers and central heating has had to be installed after construction.I have conducted a survey on housing quality which is on the following pagesENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYThere is absolutely no danger from any industrial sites in the Mosborough area as there are none. There are many open public spaces and play areas for children. This area seems to place less emphasis on trying to build a community spirit, but it is still an excellent area to raise a child.In this area the access to public transport and shopping facilities is slightly better than the previous two locations. Several years ago a shopping centre called Crystal Peaks was built. This has many shops, a market, a cinema and a bus terminal within its grounds.I have conducted a survey on envrionmental quality which is on the following pages
Price and Quality ResearchI will now collect leaflets about houses that are for sale in the areas I have visited. The first leaflet is of Manor Oaks Road, which is the exact same small road just off of Duke Street that I visited while surveying and photographing the area.
The second leaflet is of City Road. This is once again the exact same road that I visited while surveying and photographing the area.
The third leaflet is of Northern Avenue. This is not actually on the Manor Estate, but is just across the road from the Manor Estate. Unfortunately there were not many houses on the Manor Estate in the area I visited for sale when I collected the leaflets. As you can see however the housing is practically identical.
This leaflet is of a house in the Frecheville area.
Finally this leaflet is of a house for sale in Mosborough.
Using the prices of the five houses for sale, I have created a graph showing
the differences in the prices of the houses. This graph is on the following page.
Now using the totals form each individual environmental and housing survey from each of the five areas I have studied I have created another two graphs.The graph on the following page is of the totals of the evironmental surveys I conducted.The graph on the page after the next is of the totals of the housing surveys I conducted.
Now using the information from these two graphs I will create a two more graphs showing the distance from the city centre with the marks of each of the five areas I have visited showing.The graph on the following page is using the totals of the environmental survey graph.The graph on the page after the next is using the totals of the housing survey graph.
ConclusionLooking at the Price Range, Housing and Environment graphs we can see that there is a general increase throughout all three graphs. The Environmental graph is the only graph to increase all the way. The Price Range and Housing graphs have slight fluctuations in the graph pattern.
Looking at the Price graph of the houses we can see that, except for the Manor Estate price, there is a steady and general increase in the price of the houses as they get further from the city. The reason why the price of the house on the Manor Estate is lower than that of City Road and Frecheville could be explained in many ways. The most likely reason for this, is because that particular house is not on the Manor Estate at all. But this raises the question of why is a house just across the street being sold so cheaply. This could be because of any number of things, such as the house may be in poor condition or there may be a high crime rate in this area or there may be an industrial area near by.Looking at the Environmental Survey of the Manor Estate we can see that the Manor Estates environmental quality is better than City Road but not as good as in Frechville. On the Housing graph for the Manor we see that the Manor Estates housing quality is better than on City Road (which is closer to the city) and Frecheville (which is further from the city).The reason that the house for sale on Duke Street is only being sold for ?24,950, is partly because of the small cramped conditions of the housing. On the Housing graph we can see that Duke Street scored the lowest. This is because there is only four or five original rooms to the house with an extra one in the converted attic. Because the houses have no gardens, which provide the owner with privacy and give the house a more homely feeling, or garages, to provide secure parking, this will also lower the price of the house.On the Environmental graph of Duke Street we can see that Duke Street scored very low. This is because of the lack of gardens, open spaces and play areas. Although there is excellent public transport and nearby shops the negative factors outweigh the positive.As we can see from the Price Range graph the house for sale on City Road is being sold for ?34,950. This is ten thousand pounds more expensive than that on Duke Street. This is because these houses were built with five or six original rooms, with another in the now converted attic. Although the house still has no garage there is a small garden at the front and back of the house which provides the owner with some privacy. This is why City Road scores higher on both the Environmental and Housing Survey graphs.. There is also a good public transport system and the road is quite close to many shops.The house for sale in Frecheville is ?41,750. The reason the price is this high is because of the excellent environmental and good housing conditions. On the Housing graph we can see that although the Manor Estate scored higher than Frecheville, the score is still very high. This is because the houses in Frecheville are built as large semidetached with a medium sized front and back garden. There are no garages at the majority of houses but there is a drive provided for the cars to park.On the Environmental graph we can see that Frechville has the joint highest score. This is because this area has a fishing pond, a bowling green, many public open spaces and many playing areas for children. All this goes toward increasing the price of the house. The transport and shopping facilities in this area are slightly poorer than the previous occasions, but there is a row of shops and a series of corner shops scattered throughout the area.The house for sale in Mosborough is priced at ?67,500. The reason this price is so high is because of the excellent housing and environmental conditions. As we can see from the Housing graph Mosborough scores full marks. This is because all of these houses are built as either large detached houses or bungalows. The reason the houses can be built so large and sometimes only with a single floor is because the land is much cheaper in the suburbs than closer to the city. These houses are built with one or even two garages and all the houses are built with a medium to large sized garden.On the Environmental graph we can see that Mosborogh has one of the highest environmental quality scores. This is because of things like only several minutes walk from here is a country park and nature reserve called Rother Valley. This is accessible to all in the surrounding area. There are buses running there, you can take in a car and there are paths for bicycles and to walk. There are recreational lakes where one can water ski or jet ski and hire rowing boats
Unlike in Frecheville the public transport system is very good. Here there is a bus terminal and the recently constructed Supertram which runs through here to the city centre. The shopping facilities in Mosborough are also far from poor. The shopping complex Crystal Peaks was built to accommodate the earlier housing developments in the Mosborough area and is soon to be extend. As well as a supermarket, a cinema, many restaurants, a library and a bus terminal, there will soon also be a bowling alley, a club and other shops. These excellent local facilities and surroundings are what make the modern housing in Mosborough so expensive The original Burgees hypothesis stated:The style of housing changes and the quality of the housing environment improves with increasing distance from the town centre. Is this true for SheffieldThe Burgees theory (page 2) shows how a city develops as equally sized rings surrounding the city centre. This theory is incorrect in the respect that the zones in Sheffield are not equally sized. Looking at the housing and environmental distance graphs (page 47 and 48) it is clear that the distance between certain zones is not the same. The distance between Duke Street and the Manor Estate, this is theoretically two different zones, is only two kilometres. However, the distance from the Manor Estate and Mosborough, again these are again theoretically two different zones, is seven kilometres.Looking at the Environmental quality distance graph we can see that the environmental quality does increase with gaining distance from the city centre. The quality raises very little however between Frecheville and Mosborough.Looking at the Housing quality distance graph we can see that, if it was not for the Manor Estate, there would be a steady increase in housing quality with gaining distance from the city centre. I cannot explain why the Manor Estate has such a high housing quality. Because the Manor Estate has such a high housing quality it raises the question of why are the houses so cheap in comparison the others. This is because this area has a very high crime and graffiti and litter rate. This drastically stains the quality of the Manor EstateUsing the data I have collected and assessed, the indisputable answer to this hypothesis is Yes. The style of housing does change and the quality of the housing environment improves with increasing distance from the town centre. The housing near to the town centre is small 19th century pre-war buildings with no greenery and open spaces. The housing far from the town centre is modern spacious housing with large gardens and ponds and parks.[pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]I have conducted a survey on housing envrionmental quality which is on the following pages
CONTENTS:Hypothesis. Page 1