Art practice is the process by which an artist creates pieces of art, allowing meaning to be conveyed in both an objective and aesthetic ways. Everyone goes through different events throughout their lives; artists naturally draw on the cultural and historical events that have impacted their past.
Artists will also develop a style of their own, drawing on influential peers for inspiration on technique, medium, beliefs and values. An individuals art practise changes and evolves; they need this personal growth and change so they can move forward. When looking for that next step they must gather and reinterpret ideas from other artists be it materials, movements or style.
As artists we look for new ways to challenge the world we know, but we do sometimes need a push in the next direction, for instance in his youth Pablo Picasso (1881 to 1973) the father of Cubism, was heavily influenced by Edouard Manet (1832 to 1883) the incidental creator of Post Expressionism. The piece of modernism ???Luncheon in the Park.??? Manet was inspired by modern technologies and the invention of flash photography and recreated the high contrast between the black and white lighting in photos in his paintings.
The uproar during the 1863 Salon exhibition showed that ???Luncheon??? did not fit the conventional look the salon was renowned for and also became a highlight of ???Salon Des Refuses ???exhibition (a number of artists who ganged together to revolt against the Salons judgement of what was and what wasn??™t considered art) Luncheon???depicted a female nude joining in on casual conversation with two men out in the open. The nude casually gazing at the viewer while the men talked as if nothing was out of the ordinary. While Manet??™s intention was not to shock but to experiment with light, he inevitably changed the course of modernism and modern art, as many following artists drew inspiration from his blatant rebellion and challenging of artistic morals and these followers became part of the impressionist movement. Their style of paintings intention was to depict what the eye actually saw not what the brain interpreted. Artists like Pisarro, Cezanne, Manet had paintings in the ???Salon Des Refuses??? art rejected by the powers that be of that time due to the new wave of practices of playing with light and colour to depict their subject matter.
It was the scandal behind the painting ???Luncheon??? that Picasso found inspirational as he saw the challenging of traditional conventions and ideas in the art world more satisfying as he needed to buck the system. Pablo Picasso was an artist in the twenty first century, who first dabbled with cubism in his painting ???Les Demoiselles D??™Avignon??? (1907) a work of fragmented forms , layered planes and angular abstraction., appearing to be seen from many angles like in funhouse mirrors. This painting was considered pivotal in his career as it was a completely new style and broke so many boundaries but was his answer to disaffecting from the naturalism or more conventional styles of that time. The five women in ??????Les Demoiselles D??™Avignon??? were prostitutes it shows he incorporated facets from other cultures the faces were derived from archaic Iberian stone heads Picasso had seen in the Louvre and native African tribal masks also. If you look at George Braque(1882-1962), Picasso??™s partner in this style from 1907 when Braque visited Picasso??™s studio and was confused and dismayed by the ugliness??™ and intensity of his painting ???Les Demoiselles D??™Avignon??? commenting that Picasso had been ???drinking turpentine and spitting fire???.
Later after in-depth conversation the two discovered several mutual muses and mediums like tribal art and experimentation of the audiences viewpoint of a piece, this led to a lifelong partnership of conspiratorial mirroring of each other latest practice The Pair later developed a new style that made possible the use of materials that had not been hither too appropriate within the art world, The use of real objects. Then led to other artists extending their range of materials, Synthetic cubism. Before his partnership with Picasso, Braque was distorting the conventional viewpoint of still life. His use of colour had nothing to do with the representation of reality, but to clearly represent the features of the surroundings and structure the focus of the piece. Picasso had an influence on so many of his peers from that era. Russian born Marc Chagall (1887 to 1985) shows the influence to his Surrealist paintings in ???Adam and Eve???1912 and ???I and the village??? 1911 they show abstracted representation and layered planes of geometric shapes. Both paintings pay homage to the cubist style with the use of basic, simple shapes, colours and lack of depth. Wassily Kandinsky (1866 to 1944) another Russian Surrealist Artist who shows similarities in his practise to Picasso, though his abstraction, lack of spatial depth and colour, Audiences for both the artist often missed the meaning behind their abstraction, Kandinsky was quoted saying??? abstract art places a new world, which on the surface has nothing to do with ??? reality ??? , next to the ???real??? world???. Or in other words, within the frame of his canvas he has created a reality, completely alien to the audience, and as the audience we have to clear our minds from what we know to allow ourselves to be transported through this portal to their (the artists) world.
Through this and the following decade European art had a influx of ??“isms being; Impressionism, post-impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism (both Synthetic and Analytical) and expressionism.
Although the artist belonging to each movement were different, they acknowledged and drew from each other, adapting ideas and techniques, but never mixed movements within exhibitions. It wasn??™t until war broke out that America tuned into the modernism of European art.
Much like the Critical rejection and Mocking of Manet, Futurist Marcel Duchamp??™s ???Nude Descending a Staircase??? (1912), A fairly mainstream cubist piece, where the audience see??™s the movement of the nude much like an slow motion film flattened. His art work has all the angular and flat planes of the cubist style, however this piece gave movement to static artwork,
Art practices had to also adapt as the world changed meaning , as the invention of newer media and technologies blossomed, so did new potential ideas, Picasso, s synthetic cubism gave Marcel Duchamp ideas that he took to a much more drastic level, from futurism to Dadaism, his anti-everything ???art??? movement., and brought to life the controversial ???ready-mades???, in 1913 Duchamp installed ???bicycle wheel??? into his studio, his point was to challenge the very notion of art and the ???unnecessary??? adoration it accumulated.
???My idea was to chose an object that wouldnt attract me, either by its beauty or by its ugliness. To find a point of indifference in my looking at it, you see???
Though his idea was not further developed until 1915. Duchamp then took his idea of the ready-mades to the extreme by entering ???fountain??? , an urinal simply tilted 90 degrees and inscribed with his pseudonym ???R.Mutt??? and that year entered it into the 1917 Armory Exhibition in New York, as Critics and the public saw it as making a joke at their expense, Duchamp resigned from the board of independent artist, in which his piece was so harshly judged, even though he entered it into the exhibition under an alias, in fear of such rejection. He later anonymously published in his American Dada Magazine the blind man that;
???Whether Mr Mutt made the fountain with his own hands or not has no importance. He CHOSE it. He took an article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view ??“ created a new thought for that object???
So, through out art history we can see a constant of, inspiration and production, rebellion and modification, of art practice as we constantly look to the past to change the future of our works. From Manet, to Cezanne, Picasso and Duchamp one inspires another and another in a different way. But as we, in modern society have absolutely no bars or boxes to remain in, no one to tell us what we can and can??™t do, what will become of our practice. How will we further and change art in the future How can we look to our peers when there is seemingly no longer any innovation or possible rebellion towards art in general