Connection of Diverse Workforce Mgt 308

Connection of Diverse WorkforceIn today??™s workforce diversity has become a key factor in the success of the workplace because of the various skills the people are brining to the workplace. When an employer wants to make the workplace a reflection or the company??™s values and philosophies, the company must not only discuss how to be successful rather not discuss about the company must take action as well. For example, a company puts out a memo out telling the employees about being kind to each other and respectful to each other, then the leaders in the company walk around telling the employees how the company appreciates his or her hard work. In this paper I will discuss communications issues how to avoid issues how to address the problems when they arise the bond the diverse work force promotes within the workforce team and how to deal with problems such as discrimination, exclusion and prejudice behavior.
The communication issues I have experienced in the Army has been when a person did not correctly pass a message to myself resulting in me completing work that need to be done at a later date and the work that need to be complete immediately was postponed because of bad communication from my leader. Another communication issue was a leader who was from Mexico and his first language was Spanish had a heavy accent and it was hard for most everyone to understand the messages he would tell everyone. The leader spoke very quickly, which made understanding what he was trying to articulate was more difficult , this resulted in people not moving to the destination he told us to and the leader the punished the people who didn??™t make the journey to the destination because they didn??™t understand his message.
To avoid the issues of bad communication the leader to should have taken the time to write the message down exactly how the message was passed to him or her. This will alleviate the error of passing incorrect information. Another way to overcome the communication problems is the leadership understands how the work culture best receives communication. For example, a leader may not have a good connection with the employees so another leader who has a better connection with the employees may pass message so the employees properly receive the information. When issues occur the issues should be dealt with early and when in need. Many misunderstandings that should be minor can become very large and out of control if not dealt with early. The person or persons with the issue should be taken aside by the leader and he or she should receive corrective training on the problems this should help to eliminate the problem before it spirals out of control.
The army promotes the bonding between diverse groups by using the month of the year to educate the people on the differences in the culture. For example the month of February is Black history month a person can learn about the African American culture. The education of the diverse cultures helps the cultures to understand that people have differences and that diversity should be celebrated not ignored. Another way the army brings diverse groups together is team building exercises. For example the obstacle course, the obstacle course has challenges that can only be complete through teamwork the purpose of the obstacle course shows the soldiers that no matter his or her differences if they work as a team the soldiers can accomplish any task. ???Many organizations continue to find themselves engaged in global works with commonalities and not the norms. The difference becomes the norms, bonding individuals in otherness??? (Deetz, Simpson 2004 p1).
The Army has zero tolerance for issues of discrimination, prejudice and exclusionary behavior, when these issues arise the army will bring the parties involved before a high ranking leader who will address the matter before the issues is taken before any military judge. The leaders will do his or her best to handle the situation at the lowest level possible. The Army is based on team work and diversity, which leaves no place for prejudice, discrimination and exclusion. The environment of the army is serious business that can cost soldiers lives. That is why there is a zero of no tolerance for the issues mentioned and the leaders will seek a solution immediately. The army understand that there is strength in diversity and to discriminate, exclude or be prejudice, which tears at the concept of one Army one team that is why the army celebrates the diversity of the soldiers.???Insights into the nature of exclusion and how to move beyond stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination to workplace collaboration boosts innovation, motivation, productivity, career success, and company profits??? (Ruffino, 2005 p1.)
In conclusion, the leaders who inspire the employees to do better and have good communication between the leaders to the employees will be the key factors in the success of a diverse workforce. The diversity of an organization be celebrated people have different culture, races religions or genders but he or she is a person we all have the same basic need food, water and shelter embrace and appreciate one another differences. References
Anft, Michael, and Heather Joslyn. “Making an Organization More Diverse: Tips for Success.” Chronicle of Philanthropy 18 Oct. 2007. Academic OneFile. Web. 24 June 2010.
Deetz, S. & Simpson, J. (2004). Critical organizational dialogue: Open formation and the demand of
???Otherness.??? In R. Anderson, L. A. Baxter, K. N. Cissna (Eds.) Dialogue: Theorizing difference
in communication studies, (pp. 141-158). Sage: London.
Diversity: BASF Guide for Managers and Teams, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2008,
Goodall, H. L. & Kellett, P. M. (2004). Dialectical
Norma Carr-Ruffino copyright ?© 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company

How Can Households Be Discouraged from Using Private Transport

How can households be discouraged from using private transport
As the level of wealth increases, so do people owning cars. China and India are both enjoying the freedom and prestige that car ownership brings. In Australia and other developed countries, it is common for families to have more than one car per adult in the family. The problem for modern society is to reduce the number of cars on the road without removing the benefits that they bring to the individual.
There are a number of different methods that can be used to decrease the number of cars on the road. The first one is to increase the public transport system. Governments should make sure that there are adequate facilities, including trains and buses. In Brisbane there has been a big move to encourage people to cycle to work instead of driving. A lot of money has been spent on creating bikeways.
Another option for the government is to add a charge for driving in the city. The congestion charge has been very successful in London, where drivers have to pay about fifty Australian dollars to drive in the city centre.
The government could put a higher tax on fuel to help people make the right choice about driving or taking public transport.
Campaigns that encourage car-pooling also help reduce the number of cars travelling in the rush hour. This is encouraged even further by the introduction of transit lanes for cars carrying more than two occupants.
Overall, there are a variety of ways that people can be persuaded to leave the car at home and all of them will help not only the environment but the individuals fitness levels as well.282 words.

Connections Between Orwell

AP3 English
16 August 2011
A Taste of Freedom: Bittersweet
It is common belief that if a child is denied sweets at home, this child will over indulge when sweets are presented outside of the home, and have no boundary or concept of when to stop eating. This type of over indulgence is exemplified in a collection of works by George Orwell. George Orwell??™s novel 1984, published in 1949, is his depiction of what the world will be like in the year 1984. His essay ???Shooting an Elephant???, first published in 1936, is a real life story of his encounter with a rogue elephant while living and working as a British police officer in Myanmar. Both of these works share an idea in common. If freedom is completely denied, the subject will know not when to stop and become chaotic when freedom is presented.
The Thought Police in the novel 1984 are a secret law enforcement agency that watches closely over each citizen of Oceania. Not a single movement, word, or thought is missed or untraceable. Their job is to prevent rebellion against the government because it could result in loss of power. O??™Brien, a powerful inner party member, tells Winston, the protagonist of the story, that, ???The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake. We are not interested in the good of others; we are interested solely in power??? (217). The Party will go to great extents to have control over all citizens??™ minds. This way, the citizens have no concept of what freedom is. If there is no knowledge of freedom, there is no desire for it, thus making a rebellion nearly impossible. This idea is actually very similar to ???Plato??™s Allegory of the Cave??? in that ignorance creates subservience and peace.
The Party in 1984 strips their outer members of all knowledge that may be used against the Party. They even try to make it seem as though love should not exist at all. Winston still has his own thoughts, and he knows that he is in love Julia, a girl he often meets up with. Such relationships are prohibited, so they find a room in an old man??™s shop to meet. Winston thinks to himself,
It was inconceivable that they could frequent this place for more than a few weeks without being caught. But the temptation of having a hiding place that was truly their own, indoors and near at hand, had been too much for both of them. (1984, 115)
The above quote clearly portrays that a little bit of freedom is changing the way the gears turn inside Winston??™s brain. He cannot restrain himself from this new temptation and does not know how to handle the freedom of having a place not being watched. Usually he is very cautious and thoughtful of his actions, but he comes to this hideout daily, which is rather reckless. He acknowledges that he is risking everything for this tiny taste of freedom.
After a meeting with Inner Party member O??™Brien, Winston is convinced that the Party could be overthrown. A few days later, Winston and Julia are arrested by the Thought Police in their secret room and sent away to the Ministry of Love. The previous meeting had been sting operation to arrest Winston for Thought Crime. Winston let the thought of freedom get the best of him and he defeated himself.
Being a police officer, and working for the imperialistic government of England, Orwell ???was an obvious target and was baited??? (???Shooting an Elephant???, 293) by the citizens of the small town of Moulmein in his essay ???Shooting an Elephant???. His job was the carry out what must be done. The plot is nothing like 1984, and he doesn??™t really need to worry about many major political or governmental issues arising. According to Orwell, ???No one had the guts to raise a riot??? (???Shooting an Elephant???, 293). His main issue is dealing with the teasing and taunting of the citizens, especially the Buddhist priests.
Orwell is caught in a tough position. There is a tamed elephant which is ???ravaging the bazaar??? (???Shooting an Elephant???, 294). It kills a man and destroys many huts, making it a danger to society. This elephant has been trained and kept tied up in chains. When finally he acquires freedom, it is overwhelming and new. The elephant does not know what to do so he created chaos. The elephant is killed to protect the town. In this, it is his true ignorance of freedom that leads to his downfall.
The elephant is not only symbolic of its own freedom, or lack of it, but also of the freedom of the Burmans??™. The chains that the tamed elephant had been attached to represent the restrictions applied to the people by the imperialism from Britain. They do not have the right to govern their own country. When Orwell fires the rifle and kills the elephant, it is symbolic of the freedom of the people being annihilated. This bull elephant is left ???powerless to move and yet powerless to die??? (Shooting an Elephant, 299). The poor elephant cannot even rest in peace, as the Burmans ???stripped his body almost to the bones by the afternoon??? (Shooting an Elephant, 299).
Orwell goes on more to discuss the danger of unlimited power, which is the Party??™s sole aspiration in 1984. In ???Shooting and Elephant???, when he is debating whether to shoot the elephant or not, a dreadful epiphany enters his mind: ???I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys??? (Shooting an Elephant, 296). In shooting this elephant, he will not be doing what his gut instincts are shouting, loud and clear. Orwell will simply be doing what the natives want to see. Even being in control and having much more freedom than the natives, Orwell does not have the freedom to walk away from this matter with his hands free of blood.
Winston and the elephant are quite similar. All animals have natural instincts. The elephant and Winston both know that freedom is what they deserve. The lack of freedom causes them to become a problem in society, and in the end they are both dealt with. Winston is completely brainwashed and reconfigured to believe everything the Party feeds him, and do every order they assign to him. The reader pities Winston because everything he remembers, he believes is false. Orwell writes, ???He was troubled by false memories occasionally. They did not matter so long as one knew them for what they were??? (1984, 243). Whatever goes on inside his head, Winston pushes out. He is helpless and so changed from who he was before. The elephant is shot and brutally left to die. The reader pities the elephant because the life is slowly being drawn from his motionless body; it takes him a half an hour after the initial wounds to die. Making the decision to kill this elephant obviously stuck to Orwell??™s conscious. Orwell wrote ???Shooting and Elephant??? 13 years before 1984, and it is apparent that some of his writing styles and ideas were carried over.
Stomach aches and cavities are common side effects of eating too many sweets. These symptoms are minor when compared to what happened to the subjects of the two stories. Winston and the elephant were denied sweet freedom by power hungry oppressors. When each victim got a taste of freedom, a concept previously unknown to them, they lost self control and became chaotic. The powerful oppressors then took them down. They are destroyed. Even though they are technically destroyed by their oppressors, the characters essentially destroy themselves in their conspicuous over indulgence. Like a child denied of candy, any subject denied of freedom will over indulge when freedom is made available, and like the child??™s resulting self ??“inflicted stomach ache, the subject will destroy oneself.
Works Cited
Orwell, George.? 1984. New York, NY: Published by Signet Classic, 1977. Print.Orwell, George. “Shooting an Elephant.”? 50 Great Essays. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Pearson Longman. 292-99. Print.

How Can I Avoid Disease -Cholera

How can I avoid disease
A disease is an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning which are caused by pathogens. A pathogen is an agent that causes disease which includes viruses, bacteria, fungi, yeast and protozoa. When a pandemic occurs, that means the disease is geographically widespread. When a disease attacks many people in a community simultaneously, that is a epidemic. Endemic is a disease that is constantly present to people of a certain class or living in a particular location.Cholera is an acute infection affecting the intestines caused by bacterium called Vibrio Cholerae found and spread in tropical and overcrowded areas where the water and food supplies are contaminated by this bacterium. This disease is the most dreaded epidemic diarrheal disease because of its severeness. The word ???Cholera??? is derived from a Greek word Khole, which means flow of bile, and the Latin word Cholera

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Means bilious diarrhea. The incubation period is the time between the disease enters the body and the first symptoms appear. Symptoms of Cholera can take from a few hours to five days to appear. The symptoms starts with mild to moderate diarrhea sometimes with vomiting. Several liters of water will be released, leading to hypovolaemic shock. Muscle cramps may occur as loss of water and electrolytes happen. In some cases, the infected person has none or mild symptoms, but sometimes the symptoms can be severe. Some other symptoms of Cholera are specified by abdominal cramps, dehydration, diarrhea with “fishy” odor, dry mouth, dry skin, excessive thirst, leg cramps, low urine output, low blood pressure, nausea, rapid heart rate, sunken eyes, tiredness and unusual sleepiness. In severely infected persons, watery diarrhea causes rapid loss of body fluids which leads to life threatening dehydration, metabolic acidosis, uremia and shock if not treated properly. In severe cholera cases, the death rate can range from 50% or more for patients who do not receive treatment. If treated properly, the fatality rate of the person is less than 1%.If the patient does not die from Cholera, the long term effects are dehydration, salt imbalances,because the body loses water and salt through diarrhea. This results in low blood pressure and kidney damage. People who are infected for a long period are very rare. One case occurred in the Philippines where ???cholera Dolores??? had cholera vibrios in her gall bladder for twelve years since 1962. She had passed away in 1973.Cholera appears in three main epidemiological patterns??”Heavily endemic (such as Zimbabwe and the Indian subcontinent), neo-epidemic, which is newly invaded cholera-receptive areas, and in developed countries with good sanitation, which only occasional limited outbreaks occur. The patterns depend mostly on sanitary and cultural aspects, the immunity status of the people in that area, or the population and the inheritance attributes of the vibrios, for example the resistance to gastric acidity, ability to colonize and toxicity of the genes. In the heavily endemic region, cholera occurs at regular intervals, varying on different years and seasons, partly caused by the amount of rain and flooding. In these places children are more affected than adults. Recent studies have suggested that Cholera vibrios can exist for a period of time in a viable but non-cultural state in shellfish, algae or plankton in coastal regions of infected areas. Transmission of Cholera occurs majorly through water contaminated with human faecal matter, though infection may pass on through households by contaminated foods.In neo-epidemic areas, the spread of cholera depends majorly on the traffic of infected people, although the spread between neighboring communities can occur through contaminated water. In these places, more adults get cholera than children. In 1854, John Snow put a stop to an epidemic in London, England by removing the handle of a contaminated water supply called the Broad Street Pump, and that was before the discovery of the germ theory.
Deaths from cholera in England before John Snow put a stop to this. developed areas such as Japan, North Europe and North America there are hardly any outbreaks, however Japan has some reported minor cases. In 1978 the United State had an outbreak of roughly 12 cases in Louisiana, when sewage was infected and people ate infected shellfishIn heavily endemic regions, supplies of pure water may reduce the threat of infections. In neo-epidemic cholera receptive and developed areas, rapid identification and treatments for these symptoms, and chlorination of water are the most effective ways of stopping the spread of disease. The treatments for Cholera is to replace what electrolytes the body has lost due to diarrhea (fluids and salts). Recent studies show that almost all cholera patients can be maintained by fluids given orally if the solutions contain energy sources such as glucose. Packets containing NaCl, 3.5 g; KCl,1.5 g; NaHCO3, 2.5 g (or trisodium citrate, 2.9 g); and glucose, 20.0 g called Oral Re-hydrating Salts are given to organizations such as UNICEF and WHO to be given to heavily endemic regions.If the infected person is capable of drinking, Oral Re-hydrating Salts dissolved in water are given to the patient. A former way to cure the infection was to use high-priced sterile intravenous solutions. The patients fluid loss were measured in buckets kept underneath a hole in the patients cot. This was quite unhygienic way to cure the infection. If the diarrhea spilled over and a doctor or nurse came in contact with it, the doctor or nurse would most likely then get infected. Another way to cure cholera is to give antibiotics such as tetracycline, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin to the patient. These antibiotics are commonly used to shorten the period of infection with the cholera vibrios. They help clear the bacteria from the bowel, reducing chances of spreading the disease. A recent oral vaccine provides immunity to cholera, and has less side effects than the previous vaccine. The side effects of these treatments are that antibiotics may cause allergic reactions and an upset stomach. The possibility of creating a pill of pharmacological intervention (a pill that stops choleric diarrhea after it has started) has been considered. Chlorpromazine and nicotine acid have been effective in experimental animals, however the precise chemical mechanism of action is to be defined.Cholera can be cured at home, without any antibiotics or Oral Re-hydration Salts. Home treatments for Cholera includes: Lemon juice, which can kill cholera bacilli in a short time. It can be taken in a sweetened or salted beverage. 30 grams of guava root bark can be used in half a litre of water to make a decoction. The water is boiled down to reduce it by one third. This extraction should be taken twice daily. About 30 grams of onion and seven black peppercorns are pounded finely in a pestle and taken two to three times a day. In the early stages of cholera the fresh juice of bitter gourd is an effective medicine. Two teaspoons of this mixed with the same amount of white onion juice and a teaspoon of lime juice should be taken twice a day. A glass of fresh cucumber leaves juice with an equal quantity of tender coconut water, drank in doses of 30-60 ml each time quenches thirst during cholera. Four grams of cloves should be boiled in three liters of water, until half the water has evaporated. The extract thus prepared should be given to the patient several times a day.
Recent studies establishes that the V parahaemolyticus enteritis prevent multiplication of the organisms of contaminated seafood by doing such measures, for example, refrigerating seafood continuously.When Cholerae vibrios enters the body, the bacterium has to go through certain defences before the person gets the disease. Vibrio are sensitive to acid and mostly die in the stomach. Surviving organisms cling and colonize in the small bowel, where they secrete the potent cholera enterotoxin, also called choleragen. The toxin binds to the plasma membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells and releases enzymatic fractional monetary unit that causes a rise in andenosine 51-monophosphate production.The high intracellular cAMP level causes monumental release of electrolytes and water into the intestinal lumen.Recovering from cholera depends on two factors??”elimination of the vibrios by medicine or the patients immune response, and re-formation of poisoned intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment with a 200mg dose of doxycycline are reccomended by doctors. If the patient recovers, they are stably immune for at least 3 years.Vibrios that are similar to cholera have been reported in Marylands Chesapeake Bay have not been associated with human cases. These vibrios are non-pathogenic nonagglutinable vibrios, which do not contain genes for toxin production, which does not colonize and are unable to produce disease.
To prevent getting cholera, people should practice safe food and water precautions. They should only drink boiled water or water that has been treated with chlorine or iodine, and only eat food that has been cooked well that is still hot when served. They should avoid eating raw food such as seafood and salads. They should only eat fruit they have peeled themselves. People should always wash their hands often and before eating and drinking with soap and warm running water, or alcohol-based hand gel if soap and water are not available. Drink and use ice from purified water that has been boiled or disinfected. Carbonated drinks and commercially bottled water in sealed containers are usually safe. People should avoid eating unpaturized dairy products, and should avoid food from street vendors. They should avoid swimming in polluted or contaminated water. People should brush their teeth with purified or bottled water. People should carry packets of ORS, in case of cholera. When going someplace affected by cholera, check for water purification systems. Vegetables and fruit should be washed with solution of potassium permangate.
Word count: 1606 wordscitation list:
Works Cited
“Disease Information: Cholera.” Disease Information: Cholera. Public Health Agency of Canada, 31
Mar. 2009. Web. 12 Sept. 2009. .
Fighting Disease: Disease List–CHOLERA. United Nations Publications, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2009.
Where In City Medical. Glow Web Services Pvt. Ltd., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2009.
Zerr, Danielle. University of Illinois Medical Centre: Health Library. N.p., 26 Oct. 2006. Web. 12
Sept. 2009. .

Connie??™S Seeking for Independence

In ???Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been???, Joyce Carol Oates tells a story about Connie, a beautiful but self-obsessed 15-year-old girl, who has a rebellious feeling against her family, particularly her mother and older sister. Without her parents??™ knowledge, she spends most of her evenings meeting boys with her girl friends, and one evening captures the attention of a stranger in a gold convertible. While her parents are away at her aunts barbecue, two men pull up in front of her house and call Connie out. She recognizes the driver, Arnold Friend, as the man from the drive-in restaurant, and is initially charmed by the smooth-talking, charismatic stranger in his fashionable tight jeans and white T-shirt. He tells Connie he is eighteen and has come to take her for a ride in his car with his sidekick Ellie. Connie slowly realizes that he is actually much older, and grows afraid. As Connie refuses to go with him, he becomes more forceful and threatening, saying that he will harm her family, until Connie is compelled to leave with him and do what he demands of her. The story ends as Connie leaves her front porch and her eventual fate is left ambiguous.
It is quite surprising and ridiculous that how a girl could leave her family and ran away with a stranger. But in this fiction, Connie does so. Many people would take this fiction as a description of how Arnold Friend, who is often regarded as a possible rapist and murder, lures Connie??”a representative of teenage girls away from home and family. So they are inclined to interpret this fiction as the source of exploring various reasons for the tragedy, such as the traditional depressed family atmosphere, parents??™ irresponsibility and ignorance for their children and evil guys??™ induction. Connie??™s mother often urges her to be neat and responsible like her older sister June who saves money and helps their parents. Thus June always receives praise for her maturity, whereas Connie seldom does. Their father works a lot and rarely talks to his daughters, but their mother never stops nagging Connie. So as a teenage girl, her natural rebel subconsciously makes her want to get away from her family. Secondly, the hypocrite??™s temptation and threaten make the immature Connie finally give in. Dressed in a fashionable way and equipped with a car and radio, Arnold insists on taking Connie for a ride and he seems to know a lot about her, such as her name, her family and friends. Thus he wants to create a sense of familiarity and gains her trust. But when Connie scarcely knows where to turn and tries to call police, he threatens that he??™ll do something to her family when they come home. By hearing these sweet and threatening words, she is totally lost and becomes disordered. At that time, Arnold??™s further lure makes her get on his car.
To sum up, many people put all the blame on the family and the evil guy. But from the perspective of Connie, I would like to interpret the fiction as an exploration for teenagers??™ search for independence. Connie??™s conflicts with her family and efforts to make herself sexually attractive are part of her search for independence. She dreams about that one day her knight in shinning amour will appear in front of her and take her to a fair-tale world. The more she dreams about this, the more eagerly she wants to get out of her family and to search for independence. So when her parents and sister went to aunt??™s barbecue, she doesn??™t like this kind of family reunion and refuses to go. She??™d rather stay at home alone. Besides, when Arnold shows at her door and asks her to take a ride with him, she just stands at the screen door and doesn??™t directly ignore him. Even when she doubted that Arnold is much older than her, she still stands there listening to his explanations.
However, as a teenager, she is dependent on the adults in her life for care and discipline as well as for enabling her social life. Her friend??™s father, for example, drives her and her friend to the movie theater. Although Connie often fights against her family, particularly her mother and sister, they constitute the only life she really knows. Her experiments with creating a sexy appearance and meeting boys in the local diner serve as her attempt to explore new worlds as well as a new side of herself. However, until Arnold Friend arrives, her explorations have always been swaddled in safety. She may go into an alley with a boy for a few hours, but no matter what happens there, she will eventually be driven back home to the familiarity of her family.
But Connie??™s search for independence has a brutal outcome. When Arnold Friend arrives and interacts with her as the mature woman she has pretended to be, he yanks her out of her childhood adventures and places her firmly into an adult world from which no one will rescue her. The things Arnold says to Connie accurately represent the search she has undertaken as a teenager seeking maturity. For example, he says, ???I??™m your lover. You don??™t know what that is but you will??? and ???The place where you came from ain??™t there anymore, and where you had in mind to go is cancelled out.???
Teenagers??™ searching for independence is a common social phenomenon, as they are eager to gain the sense of existence and respect. And during the process, they often sway between their family and independence, just like Connie, who on one hand make great efforts to seek for independence; on the other hand, she has to be dependent on her family. But Connie go extremes to seek complete independence, which makes her go astray by Arnold??™s temptation.

How Can Management Strengthen the Organizational Culture

How Can Management Strengthen the Organizational Culture
There is a subtle link between expectancy, effort, productivity and reward. Werner (2002, p.335) states that ???a person will exert a high effort if he/she believes there is reasonable probability that the effort will lead to the attainment of an organizational goal, and the attainment of the organizational goal will become an instrument through which that person will attain his/her personal goals.??? If this is the case with employees, one would thus conclude that 0rganizational goals will be elevated above personal goals, and this may account for the use of incentives and rewards to recognize the effort made by employees. In the same vein, the Beehive Survey found out that whilst over 60% of organizations in South Africa recognized that pay is just one way to motivate employees, less than 40% created long-term incentives across all levels (Sacht T., 2003). One may argue that inadequate monetary benefits may lead to discontentment and disenchantment that are illustrated by shoddy work and a high labor turnover in some organizations. For example, the Salary Moves and Labor Trends Beehive Survey, conducted by Deloitte and Touche in South African organizations in 2003 ??“ indicated that labor turnover [as a result of dissatisfaction with salaries and incentives] was 15% among key specialists and 17% for general monthly paid employees (Brindle, 2003).
From the preceding discussion it can be deduced that there is a relationship between pay and incentives and cognitive dissonance theories which propound that productivity is a result of the perceived difference between what is expected or desired as fair and reasonable reward individual motivation and what is experienced in the job situation, organizational incentives. The following motivational ideas are to strategically manage the organizational culture throughout the organization.
Employers and employees have expectations when they come into an employment relationship. Kotter (1976, p.93) contends that the first group of expectations represents what an individual expects to receive from an organization and what the organization expects to give the individual while the second group of expectations includes what an individual expects to offer the organization and what the organization expects to receive from the individual. The two types of expectations defined as a give-and take relationship which is intended to create a win-win situation for employees and organizations. According to Van Dyk (2002, p.33),??? expectations are contained in psychological contracts??? which Porter et al. (1975) regard as the ???dynamics of organization-individual interactions???, and cooperative contracts. Similarly, Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) define a psychological contract as an individual??™s perception about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange with another party. Schein (1980) aptly summarizes the value of expectations when he states:
???it is my central hypothesis that whether a person generates commitment loyalty, and enthusiasm for the organization and its goals??¦ depends to a large measure on two conditions: (1) the degree to which his own expectations of what the organization will provide him with what he owes organization match with what the organizations are made of what it will give and get; (2) assuming there is agreement on expectations what actually is to be exchanged???It can be construed that it is necessary for employers and employees to communicate their expectations. With this know information and all of the changes in the organization that have taken place we need to sit down and explain to the employees where this company is headed. We need to explain to them what are strategic plan is for this company and how we are going to get there to include why some were let go from the company. To start to build this trust with the employees we need to start with communication. We need to have this meeting ASAP because the longer we wait the greater the discord and lack of trust that the employees will have in the leadership.
Next we need to step will be to set up some performance measurement indicators (PMIs) for all of the accounting processes within the company for each section and accountant to meet. Organizational goals direct the actions of both the employers and employees. As a result, the setting of simple and specific goals which have measurable outcomes assists employees to know clearly what they are supposed to do. In addition, organizations should set attainable and realistic goals for employees and not set employees up for failure with unrealistic expectations. There is therefore sense in what Pascale and Athos (1981) in The Art of Japanese Management, as cited in Mwosa (1987), noted when they wrote:
???Managerial reality is not an absolute; rather, it is socially and culturally determined across all cultures and in all societies. Human beings coming together to perform certain collective acts encounter certain problems that are related to establishing, directing, co-coordinating and motivating. Culture affects how these problems are perceived and how they are resolved. Social learning also establishes horizons of perception???
Managers are expected to set goals which are within the employees??™ performance range, and that is why the potential, aptitude, abilities, skills, knowledge and values of employees should be considered before one is engaged to do the work. For example, employing a traditional and conservative Catholic in an abortion clinic may not be advisable on moral and value-consideration , even if that person is a highly skilled surgeon. It is also necessary to bear in mind that goal-setting should also anticipate the outcomes to be attained. Commitment to the tasks at hand becomes easier when one has a mental construct of what the end of the product of the whole undertaking will be. Coetsee (2003, p.175) states that aligned commitment is the extent to which employees understand and live the shared vision of the organization.
Mathibe (1998) notes that in line with industrial needs for productivity and competitiveness, competencies and skills acquisition are the sine qua non for task performance in present-day production systems. The words of Frederick Taylor of getting ???the right man for the right job??? are relevant here because organizations that want to gain competitive advantage over competitors need skilled and well-trained employees. Additionally, employees that are skilled and trained for the jobs do not feel threatened, either by the changes, the job itself or new entrants ??“ who happen to be well-trained and skilled in the jobs ??“ into the job market. Skill obsolescence in the face of globalization and technological advancements also increases the need for unfolding of potential and development diverse skills in employees.
Multi-skilling is the buzz-word in many organizations since it is assumed that it generates a highly developed form of work intensification, flexibility, inter-changeability and mobility in the workforce (Tomaney, 1990). The training program needs to be revitalized. We need to start with the changes that will be implemented because of the new jobs that some members will be moving into. The was a number of personnel that were let go during the merger and before we go out to replace those whom were let go, we need to see if there are employees within the company that are better fitted for these jobs. I think the best plan of attack for the training is to sit down and discuss weaknesses with both the employees and section supervisors. We can be guided best by this discussion with them as well as letting them know that they are important to us and that they know the job and processes better than us. This will allow employees to show their talents and potential to fill other positions throughout the company.
Organizations need workplace practices that unlock potential in order to enable them to be productive. One may argue that job performance [effort] requires interaction, synergy and symmetry between the intellect [the head], emotions [the heart] and skills [the hand].
The external environment represents factors outside organizations that affect personal functioning and it includes technological acceleration, the effect of social and other groups outside the work environment; and individuals constantly compare personal progress with personal achievement in organizations (Van Dyk, 2002, p.26). All things being equal, the job context environment is the task environment within which an individual functions, and employees who interact with their work environments ??“ not only being defined by such environments but also defining such environments ??“ have a higher degree of motivation than those who accept the status quo and let the work environment define them. Similarly, Passer and Smith (2004) contend that the likelihood that people will engage in particular behaviors in given situations is influenced by two factors: expectancy and reinforcement value. Passer and Smith??™s view makes sense for people with an external locus and employees with a strong internal locus of control. In the same vein, Bandura regards reciprocal determinism as a situation where internal determinants and external determinants interact and cohere to enhance employee motivation (Burger, 2004). The view expressed by Bandura??™s reciprocal determinism addresses questions whether employees define the work environment or the work environment defines the employees. Subsequently, Van Dyk (2002) concludes that just as individuals can only meet their expectations and needs by joining organizations, they translate their expectations into personal goals before they join organizations.
The preceding discussion clearly indicates that people are not victims of their environments [as arguments for external locus always infer], but they are masters, inventors and creators of new vistas for their lives [as it is always stated in arguments for internal locus]. Werner (2002) rightly observes that people strive towards maturity ??“ through unfolding of their potential ??“ in their work since they experience growth in the context of their work. One would therefore expect creation of the following conditions in order to improve employees??™ motivation:
??? Communication: ???managers explain expectations and the organization??™s performance standards ???(Dawson, 1993);
??? Listening: ???managers listen to employees??™ views regarding expectations on performance standards??? (Hargreaves & Hopkins, 1991);
??? Encouragement: ???managers provide encouragement in order to motivate and inspire employees to improve performance and aspire for quality??? (Chetty, 1997);
??? Agreement: ???managers forge collective agreements on performance standards and operational strategies??? (Sono, 2002); and
??? Reporting: ???managers provide feedback on successes and levels of performance of employees as a strategy for improving the quality of production??? (Van der Westhuizen, 2002).
The creation of an environment that is appropriate for personal growth and development provides enough motivation for working in an organization. When conditions in the organization do not satisfy an employees??™ physiological, safety and security, acceptance, love and self-actualisation needs employees tend to become demotivated, lethargic, unproductive and grumpy. The Expectancy Theory is based on the assumption that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired and valued outcomes (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007, p.246). This view is closely linked to Skinner??™s Operant Conditioning because on both occasions an individual or operant is responsible for the outcome or reinforcement which leads to the repetition of desired behaviors. Mwamwenda (1995) explains that reinforcement follows the repetition of a desired behavior [outcome] after a stimulus [input] has been provided. The link with Pavlov??™s dog which salivated also indicates that stimuli may be generalized just as in the case of employees getting promotion or bonuses at particular intervals for the work they did well. Robinson (1992) contends that effective motivation depends on a concern for ethical values and when duties, responsibilities and formal relationships are appropriately planned, organized and controlled. It suffices to state that ambivalence about the conditions in an organization may generate despondency and lack of motivation (Heystek, 2002), even if an organization has attractive incentive schemes and salary structures. One has to caution though, while dependence on incentives schemes to enhance employees??™ motivation may ensure efficiency in the short-term, in the long-term one may proof to be an ineffective mechanism for sustainability in the business. For example, in organizations that set production targets as in mining ??“ employees work long hours [over-time] ??“ which may compromise safety standards ??“ just to reach the target and to get the bonuses. Fatalities ??“ in the mines ??“ have been recorded due to this practice, and such mines were forced to close for some time in order to upgrade their safety. I know that we are in a time of limited economic resources, but there are other programs that could be adapted in place of monetary means. There are some small things we could do such as the Employee of The Month Award. We could assign a parking spot close to the building for the winner as well as give some paid time off from work for exceptional performances on the job.
Just as Lawler and Porter focused on value of outcomes in the form of rewards, Charlton (2000) notes that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards have reciprocal motivational effects since they represent effective methods of energizing, promoting and maintaining employees??™ behavior. Schultz (2004, p.277) also notes that a reward is first and foremost a people issue: it is about motivating them, reshaping and refocusing their behaviors??™, and inducing them to accept organizational values. Nevertheless, one should be cognizant of the fact that rewards may or may not have a motivating effect on the basis of their attractiveness to the individual. For this reason, Mayo??™s conclusions in the Hawthorne Experiments on motivation were that employees??™ are motivated by more than pay and conditions. In some cases, the need for recognition and a sense of belonging may be important motivators which influence employees??™ groups and teams to perform beyond expectations (Shah & Shah, 2008, p.5).
It is essential to note that motivation ensures voluntary unfolding of employees??™ talents and potential for the benefit of the organization. To this end, Dawson (1993, p.61) regards motivation as the extent to which employees acknowledge the legitimacy of and seek to achieve organizational objectives and interests. The significance of this argument is that the expectancy theory predicts that employees will be motivated when they believe that putting in more effort will yield better job performance. In the same vein, better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits, and these predicted organizational rewards are valued by employees.
The success of every organization, society and country depends on the direction and Leadership that is provided. Similarly, experience in, and knowledge of contemporary management and Leadership approaches is necessary for upholding the notion of efficacy, quality and motivation in organizations. In the same vein, competitive organizations are led by people who understand that people empowerment raises productivity, operational autonomy and innovation. However, there are economists who argue that organizations cannot grow and expand if employees??™ are poorly skilled, de-motivated and oblivious of organizational goals. On the same note, there are indications that when people have appropriate skills for job performance, and when they understand the rules of the globalized and globalizing industry such as ours, their productive capacity will increase. With the implementation we can change the perception of our employees and will be able to build the trust that we need to stay competitive with our competing accounting firms. ReferencesAronson, E., Wilson, T. D. & Akert, R. M. 2005. Social Psychology. New Jersey: PearsonBoje, D . & Rosile, G. A. 2004. Death, Terror and Addiction in motivational theory. In: Brewis,

J., Linstead, S., Boje, D & O??™Shea, A. (Eds.), Passion, of organizing. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business.Brindle, T. 2003. Re-aligning the workplace. In: The Star, 5 February 2003.Burger, J. M. 2004. Personality. Belmont: Thompson.Charlton, G. 2000. Human habits of effective organizations. Pretoria: Van Schaik.Chetty, C. 1997. The school effectiveness movement: origins. The Curriculum Journal, 8(1): 45.Coetsee, L.D. 2003. Peak performance and productivity. Potchefstroom: Van Schaik.Davis, J & Wilson, S.M. 2003. Development and knowledge economy. In: Brown, R [Ed]. Universities and development. London:Association of Commonwealth Universities.Dawson, T. 1993. Principles and practice of modern management. Kent:Hodder & Stoughton.Drafke, M. W. & Kossen, S.1998. The human side of organizations. Massachusetts: Addison.Hargreaves, D. H. & Hopkins, D. 1991. The empowered school. London: Cassel.Heystek, J. 2002. The role of consultant heads in New Visions Programme. Nottingham: NCSL. Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. 1991. Educational Administration. New York: McGraw-Hill.Kotter, J. P. 1976. The psychological contract. California Management review, XV(3): 91-99.Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. 2007. Organizational Behaviour. Boston:McGraw-Hill.Kroon, J. 1990. General management. Durban: Haum.Lefcourt, H. M. 1976. Locus of control: current trends in theory and research. New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Mabale, B. J. 2004. Optimisation of educators??™ potential in primary schools. Unpublished MEd. Dissertation. Mafikeng: North West University. Maltby, J., Day, L. & Macaskill, A. 2007. Personality, individual differences and intelligence. Harlow: Pearson Prentice-Hall.Mathibe, I. R. 1998. The development, character and effect of education in a technocratic age.Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation. Pretoria:Unisa.Moorhead, G. & Griffin, R. W. 1989. Organizational behaviour. Boston: Houghton Muffin.Mwamwenda, T. S. 1995. Educational Psychology: An African Perspective. Durban: Butterworths.Mwosa, J. L. 1987. Concepts of development. In: Ndengwa, P., Muretheili, L. P. & Greene, R. H. (Eds.) Management for development. Nairobi: OxfordPascale, R. T. & Athos, A. G. 1981. The Art of Japanese management. New York: Simon &Schuster.Passer, M.W. & Smith, R.E. 2004. Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. 2nd Ed.Boston:McGraw-Hill.Porter, L. W., Lawler, E. E. & Hackman, J. R. 1975. Behaviour in organizations. New York:McGraw-Hill.Robinson, J. 1992. Managing after the superlatives. Kent: Tudor.Rotter, J. B. 1966. Generalised expectancies of internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychological monographs, 80(whole no. 609).Sacht, T. 2003. The Beehive model. Equity Skills News and Views, 2(14). 15 September 2003.Schein, E. H. 1980. Organizational psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Schultz, H. B. 2004. Compensation management. In: Nel, P.S., Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk, P.S.,Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T & Werner, A. Human Resources Management and Leadership. London: OxfordShah, K & Shah, PJ. 2008. Theories of motivation.…Sono, T. 2002. Cultural diversity and change management. Nel, P.S., Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk,P.S., Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T & Werner, A. Human Resources Management and Leadership. London: OxfordTomaney, J. 1990. the reality of workplace flexibility. Capital and class, 40: 29 ??“ 60.Turner, TC. 1999. Some current issues in Research on Social Identity and Self-categorisationTheories. In: Ellemers, N., Spears, R. & Doosje, B. (Eds.), Social Identity. Oxford:BlackwellVan der Westhuizen, P.C. 1999. Effective Educational Management. 9th Impression.Pretoria:KagisoVan Dyk, P. S. 2002a. The functional systems and efficiency approaches to human resourcesmanagement and leadership. In: Nel, P.S., Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk, P.S., Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T & Werner, A. Human Resources Management and Leadership. London:OxfordVan Dyk, P. S. 2002b. definition of scope of human resources management. In: Nel, P.S.,Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk, P.S., Haasbroek, G.D., Schultz, H.B., Sono, T & Werner, A. Human Resources Management and Leadership. London:OxfordWalton, R. E. 1985. From control to commitment. Boston: Harvard Business School.Werner, A. 2002. Leadership. In: Nel, P.S., Gerber, P.D., Van Dyk, P.S., Haasbroek, G.D.,Schultz, H.B., Sono, T & Werner, A. Human Resources Management and Leadership. London:Oxford


Through various studies, different researchers have come up with theories regarding consciousness. A night??™s rest can be the perfect example of losing consciousness, and when we awaken, we obtain consciousness again. Consciousness is a mysterious study, and psychologists have built models to help understand how consciousness emerges from our brains. Originally, this study is based on belief that the gathering together of neurons across the brain will enable consciousness. It was believed in the recent decades that when this occurs, it allows the brain to bring together different awareness??™s into a single conscious experience. Dr. Giulio Tononi was a doctor who studied consciousness by becoming a psychiatrist. He developed a very different theory about consciousness. He believes that if synchronization were the key to consciousness, you would expect the seizures to make people hyperconscious (more conscious than normally) instead of unconscious, due to their brain waves becoming more synchronized. If his theory is correct, then he wishes to build a ???conscious meter???, which should measure consciousness as easy as measuring blood pressure. Dr Giulio stated that when you are dealing with consciousness, if you don??™t have a theory, you will have no chance of being able to state anything meaningful.Many people wonder what is so important about consciousness. But this question is easily answered. Being conscious to the various things going on around us and being conscious in general is essential for us to successfully function in the world. It is valuable for our mental states to occur consciously rather than unconsciously. This enhances our processes of rational thinking and complex reasoning for what we do. Every day living patterns may suggest that you can have complete conscious control of your behavior. Evidence of unconscious causation has proved that conscious thought has very little to no impact of your behavior. The evidence for conscious causation is most of the time not direct, and depends on the unconscious processes. It was noted that when an individual is conscious, their behavior seems to be based upon their cultural and social upbringing.In scientific psychology, research of consciousness had not been allowed, and had been conducted under the attention category in the last decade. But today, research regarding consciousness is based on the consciousness states caused by insufficiencies that interrupt the functioning of the human senses and cognitive processes, such as surgery, injury, or stroke.Works Citedvan Gaal,? S.,? Lamme,? V.,? Fahrenfort,? J.,? &? Ridderinkhof,? K..? (2011). Dissociable Brain Mechanisms Underlying the Conscious and Unconscious Control of Behavior.? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,? 23(1),? 91.?  Retrieved October 10, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID:? 2157948111).
Behavior Research; San Francisco State University, Department of Psychology describes research in behavior research.? (2010,? October). Psychology & Psychiatry Journal,190.?  Retrieved October 11, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID:? 2162326881).
Carl Zimmer.?  (2010,? September? 21). Sizing Up Consciousness By Its Bits? :[Science Desk].? New York Times ? (Late Edition (east Coast)),?  p.? D.1.?  Retrieved October 11, 2010, from Banking Information Source. (Document ID:? 2142481431).
Central Nervous System; Research conducted at University of California, Department of Psychiatry has provided new information about central nervous system.? (2010,? October). Mental Health Weekly Digest,2121.?  Retrieved October 12, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID:? 2167950161).
Linda Halstead-Acharya.?  (17?  October). Opportunities blowin in the wind.? McClatchy.?  Retrieved October 18, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID:? 2164769051).

How Can Modern Behavioural Therapies Help a Client Accept the Uncertainty of Their Future

Louisa Baker Worth Worth 3A12 Word Count ??“ 2843
???How can modern behavioural therapies help a client accept the uncertainty of their future???
In order to evaluate whether modern behavioural therapies can assist a client in accepting the uncertainty of their future, I am going to look at 2 modern behavioural therapies ??“ CBT ??“ Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and REBT ??“ Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy.
CBT is the term used for a group of psychological treatments that are based on scientific evidence. These treatments have been proven to be effective in treating many psychological disorders by addressing dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviours and cognitive processes through a number of goal orientated, explicit systematic procedures.
CBT focuses on the way people think and act to help them with their emotional and behavioural problems. It is a practical approach to helping people overcome problems and has straightforward and clear principles. A central concept of CBT is that you feel the way you think. Therefore, CBT works on the principle that you can live more happily and productively if you are thinking in healthy ways.
A central message of CBT is that the thoughts, attitudes and beliefs you hold have a big effect on the way you interpret the world around you and how you feel. So, if you are feeling excessively bad then chances are you are thinking badly or at least in an unhelpful way. People don??™t intend to think badly and mostly, people are unaware that they do.
CBT is a short term therapy that revolves around solving problems that a client presents with. It works by asking the client to take part in the therapy and actively work on changing their negative thought processes. The client and therapist will identify the individual issues that the client wishes to work on and goals are identified. The client and the therapist then work together, focusing on specific skills that empower the client to harness their own internal resources to maintain the changes they make. Homework is given to a client to use the skills that have been discussed in the sessions in everyday life and note the changes they produce compared with previous cognitions and behaviours.
REBT is a form of psychotherapy created by Albert Ellis in the 1950??™s. Its central premise is that events alone do not cause a person to feel enraged or highly anxious. Rather, it is ones beliefs about the events which contribute to unhealthy feelings and self defeating behaviours.
REBT teaches the client to identify, evaluate, dispute and act against their irrational self defeating beliefs, thus helping the client to not only feel better but to get better.
It is a practical and action led approach to therapy and personal growth. It focuses on the client??™s present behaviours but also provides techniques that will help them solve future problems and understand the behaviour of others.
REBT does hold with the fact that we are influenced by the past but contends that the past manifests in our present in our current beliefs and behaviours. Therefore, this model works with current beliefs whether they are formed in the deep past or more recently picked up. It proposes that we cannot change the past but we have the ability to change the future. The process of change is one that restores emotional balance by recognising the involvement of negative emotions and how they change the rational way in which we think.
The methods used in REBT provide ways in which we can learn to think in a more realistic way about our total environment. Although some negative emotions are natural and in some cases beneficial, they should be dealt with rather than festering away by the processes of internalisation or displacement.
REBT argues that at the core of emotional disturbance lies a set of irrational beliefs that people hold about themselves, other people and the world.
Ellis proposed 12 irrational beliefs that cause and sustain neurosis ??“
The idea that it is a dire necessity for adults to be loved by significant others for almost everything they do–
Instead of their concentrating on their own self-respect, on winning approval for practical purposes, and on loving rather than on being loved.
The idea that certain acts are awful or wicked, and that people who perform such acts should be severely damned —
Instead of the idea that certain acts are self-defeating or antisocial, and that people who perform such acts are behaving stupidly, ignorantly, or neurotically, and would be better helped to change. Peoples poor behaviours do not make them rotten individuals.
The idea that it is horrible when things are not the way we like them to be–
Instead of the idea that it is too bad, that we would better try to change or control bad conditions so that they become more satisfactory, and, if that is not possible, we had better temporarily accept and gracefully lump their existence.
The idea that human misery is invariably externally caused and is forced on us by outside people and events
Instead of the idea that neurosis is largely caused by the view that we take of unfortunate conditions.
The idea that if something is or may be dangerous or fearsome we should be terribly upset and endlessly obsess about it–
Instead of the idea that one would better frankly face it and render it non-dangerous and, when that is not possible, accept the inevitable.
The idea that it is easier to avoid than to face life difficulties and self-responsibilities
Instead of the idea that the so-called easy way is usually much harder in the long run.
The idea that we absolutely need something other or stronger or greater than our self on which to rely —
Instead of the idea that it is better to take the risks of thinking and acting less dependently.
The idea that we should be thoroughly competent, intelligent, and achieving in all possible respects —
Instead of the idea that we would better do rather than always need to do well, and accept our self as a quite imperfect creature, who has general human limitations and specific fallibilities.
The idea that because something once strongly affected our life, it should indefinitely affect it —
Instead of the idea that we can learn from our past experiences but not be overly-attached to or prejudiced by them.
The idea that we must have certain and perfect control over things —
Instead of the idea that the world is full of improbability and chance and that we can still enjoy life despite this.
The idea that human happiness can be achieved by inertia and inaction —
Instead of the idea that we tend to be happiest when we are vitally absorbed in creative pursuits, or when we are devoting ourselves to people or projects outside ourselves.
The idea that we have virtually no control over our emotions and that we cannot help feeling disturbed about things —
Instead of the idea that we have real control over our destructive emotions if we choose to work at changing the ???musturbatory??? hypotheses which we often employ to create them.
In therapy, techniques would be used to challenge these irrational beliefs and as a therapist using REBT, we would use our interactive skills to argue against these. The best way would be to lead the client to make those arguments with themselves by asking questions such as ???is there any evidence for this belief??™ and ???what is the worst that could happen if you let this belief go??™
REBT and CBT are very similar in their approach although I personally have a preference to CBT so for this continuing purpose of this essay I will concentrate on one approach ??“ this being CBT.
So, how can CBT help a client accept the uncertainty of their future
CBT is a powerful treatment because it combines scientific, philosophical and behavioural aspects into one comprehensive approach to understanding and overcoming common psychological problems.
A defining characteristic of CBT is that it gives you the tools to develop a focused approach. CBT aims to help you move from defined emotional and behavioural problems towards your goals of how you would like to feel and behave.
The need for certainty is a very common contributing factor in anxiety.
As Benjamin Franklin said ???in this world nothing is certain but death and taxes???.
We actually live in an uncertain universe. Of course, some things are predictable and pretty sure bets like the sun rising in the morning and setting in the evening. However, other things in life are much more uncertain such as ???will I be rich??™ or ???will I grow to an old age and be surrounded by grandchildren??™
If you are intolerant of uncertainty, as soon as you quell one doubt another one is going to pop up. The idea with CBT is to find ways to tolerate doubt and uncertainty as they exist whether you like it or not.
Demands for certainty can be reflected in your behaviour as shown below.
Frequent requests for reassurance. Constantly asking yourself and other people questions are all efforts to find some reassurance in an uncertain world. Unfortunately, excessive reassurance seeking can reduce your confidence in your own judgement.
Repeated checking behaviours. Checking behaviours are actions you perform in an effort to create more certainty in your world. Such actions could include checking several times that your doors and windows are locked or going over conversations in your mind to be sure that you haven??™t said anything offensive. The irony is that the more you check the more uncertain you feel. You may feel temporarily better after your checks, but it??™s not long before you are compelled to carry out the checks again. Excessive checking can be very time consuming and tiring, and it can lower your mood.
Superstitious rituals. These are things that you do to try to keep yourself safe or to prevent bad things from happening. Typically, these rituals are not usually directly related to whatever it is that you fear most. Engaging in superstitious behaviours can lead you to conclude that the ritual has prevented bad things from happening, rather than help you understand that many bad events are unlikely to occur regardless of whether you perform a ritual or not. Superstitious thinking also involves making faulty links between your subtle behaviours or thoughts and what happens in reality. For example, if you had a vivid image or dream of a child being abducted then you may think if it happens, I made it happen by imagining it. In this case you would point out to your client that they don??™t make superstitious links anywhere near as readily about good stuff. For example, when was the last time they thought it??™s a beautiful day because they thought about the weather being nice this week. If your superstitious behaviour makes any real sense at all then it has to hold true for both good and bad events.
Avoiding risks. Risks such as global tragedies, becoming ill, having an accident making poor decisions etc are unavoidable and ever present. You may be trying to eliminate risk by staying home or in a ???safe??™ place, never deviating from usual routines, over planning for trips away or over preparing for unlikely events such as war, plague or famine. In fact, risk is a part of life and can only be avoided to a limited extent. The more you try to eliminate all risk from your life; you are more likely to focus on all the possible things that could go wrong. You are fighting a losing battle and are likely to undermine your sense of security even further. Focusing too much on the risks inherent in everyday life will leave you chronically worried and cause you to overestimate the probability of bad things happening to you.
Trying to influence others. Examples of influencing others behaviour include encouraging your partner to socialise only with members of the same sex, persuading your children to stay at home rather than go out with their friends and asking your doctor to send you for more tests. Demanding that others act in ways to minimise your intolerance of uncertainty and risk can seriously damage your relationships. People close to you are likely to perceive you as controlling or suspicious.It is important that the client understands that uncertainty has always been a major feature of the world, and that people still manage to keep themselves safe and secure. The world doesn??™t need to change to feel secure; they simply need to accept that uncertainty exists and learn to live with it. You can happily co exist with uncertainty ??“ it??™s always been that way. Remind your client that most people cope with bad events every day and that they are likely to cope as well as others do if something horrible comes their way.
It is important through CBT that a therapist helps the client to challenge their negative automatic thoughts (NAT??™s) and help them build up their sense of self.
Negative automatic thoughts are a type of thinking that exists within a more obvious stream of thoughts. They are brief and tend to appear suddenly, and can occur in verbal and/or visual form. They are usually accepted as true, without contemplation or appraisal.
Negative thoughts can trap you in a vicious circle. The more depressed or anxious you become, the more negative thoughts you have, and the more you believe them. The more negative thoughts you have, and the more you believe them, the more depressed or anxious you become. The main goal of CBT is to help the client break out of this vicious circle. It is important to assist the client to learn to recognise when they are thinking negatively, to look for more positive and realistic ways of viewing their experiences and to test those out in action.
It may not be easy for a client initially to catch and answer their thoughts. Answering negative thoughts is like any other skill ??“ it takes time and regular practice to be able to do it with ease. It is important to encourage the client if they have difficulties to start with and ensure that they remain positive.
There are some various techniques currently used in CBT that are designed to aid in the identifying and evaluating process of NAT??™s. The therapist will employ one or all of these to help the client understand how their thinking has developed.
By following certain lines of questioning, a great deal of information about the clients NAT??™s can be quickly uncovered. Such questions might include the following :-
???What is the evidence that supports this idea??™
What is the evidence against this idea??™
Is there an alternative explanation??™
What is the worst that could happen??™
Could I live through it??™
What is the best that could happen??™
What is the most realistic outcome??™
The intention is to simply guide the client in the recognition and refutation of unhealthy thought processes, and towards a more rational, healthier perspective. The goal of this type of questioning is to have clients reflect upon and sort out all the presented material, rendering them more like to recall and employ it in their day to day life.
By using this technique, CBT therapists teach clients how to assess their NAT??™s as merely premises, which are meant to be tested, for once one realises that their automatic thoughts are not accurate, they are free to construct more stable and adaptive appraisals. Equally, the testing of assumptions may help create new solutions if the process corroborates ones original perception of an event.
Clients may also be helped to use imagery to discover their thinking patterns as many people experience automatic thoughts not only as unspoken words in their mind but also in the form of mental pictures or images. In order to teach clients how to recognise and intervene with their distressing images, the therapist attempts either to elicit a spontaneous image a client has had or to induce an image in session.
As a treatment, it helps the individual become aware of patterns and offers a framework both to pinpoint problematic emotions and to distance oneself from them in order to assess them in an unbiased manner.
The client needs to become aware of their negative thoughts and the effects these have on them. Negative thoughts can make you feel anxious, sad, depressed, hopeless, guilty and angry. Instead of being overwhelmed by these feelings, the client can learn to use them as a cue for action. They will learn to notice when their mood changes for the worse and look back at what was running through their mind at that moment. Over the course of time they will become more sensitive to changes in their feelings and the thoughts that spark them off.
In conclusion, I feel that CBT could be very helpful in assisting a client accept the uncertainty of their future. Although I accept it would not suit everyone, I certainly believe it has its place and could be very successful.


Hi Cheryl
Here is my assignment, I am really lost at the moment with it I have been to the support centre and they have said am on the wrong lines I sent you a few weeks ago thought I just had to improve it Please could you take a look I am supervising this so go with what I say and don??™t worry about comments from the support centre regarding content, just gain their advice on grammar etc.
Thank you Nicola
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???Many inequalities in health are a preventable consequence of the lives people leads the behaviours and lifestyles that cause ill health??? (DH2008:7). Explore the psychological and social factors that can lead to ill-health.In this assignment the author intends to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of inequalities in health raised in the Department of Health (2008) Document Equality Impact Assessment- Health Inequalities: Progress and Next Steps and use these to explore the psychological and social factors that can lead to ill health. The specific health inequalities that will be discussed in relation to their psychological and social factors and ill health are sSocial class, culture, and Ggender and, ethnicity. Social class and cultureThere are social class differences in health this is referred to the ???health divide??? all illness and diseases are linked to the health divide ref. make one paragraph with below
The author will explore social class by focusing on national statistics and government reports refs. What are the social classes and what are the implications for health??¦??¦these are just a few things to think about??¦.This will include discussion about the impact of social class on health, for example the impact of the environment in which the person lives such as housing can affect health, the individuals education, knowledge and understanding can also affect decision they make e.g. visiting a doctor or ignoring symptoms, changing diet to meet health needs, giving up smoking.if people have chosen these lifestyles or their behaviours as a way of Culture or have no choice in the way they live or is it the environment. The Black Report (1980 ) was one of the most significant studies of social inequalities in health it states how bad the social inequalities in health were. ???The Black Report divided the population into social classes and examined the health differences between them (New bold etc 2008)???. The Black Report (1980) showed there is a clear health gap between the working class and middle class despite the National Health Service being free to everyone (New Bold etc 2008) in what ways. The government only released a few copies hoping no one would notice the report. A further study was carried out 18 years later called the Acheson Report (1998) this clearly stated there is a gap between classes(Townsend etc 1992).
Social class and culture
Social class continues to have enormous effect on individual??™s health, Social class over the last twelve years the death rates in men and women have fallen in social classes. The lowest death rate has dropped in the highest social class, so this means that it has increased in the lowest classes???. For example in 1970 death rate in working men was twice as high for those in class v (unskilled) as those in class I these are professionals and by the 1990 it was almost three times as high (Browne 2008)???.I would put this more simply, but if you use this you need to explain why this is. Personally I would make sure I had stated the classes clearly and then relate the social and psychological implications to individuals in a broad, but clear way so that it remains related to your role as a nurse e.g. diet, health and fitness and time to do this. You could argue that todays society demands long working hours (find refs) this impacts on any worker, family life and health, stress and there is an increase in alcohol related illness (get refs) and stress related illness (get refs). This is the sort of thing I need you to bring into discussion. Remember this assignment is about inequalities and health ??“social and psychological, but you need it to be meaningful to your role as a nurse.
Lose this: Current situation is that services are available, so what prevents people seeking GP advice etc. You can mention the recent discussion about people on disability and that on review should not be. Socially places like Merthyr have a high unemployment ratio and disability benefit rate. WhyIt suggests that health care recourses is given less in poor areas of the UK, for example the poor class areas have less General practice??™s, so these people living in the poor areas do not have great opportunities to get to a practices, this also may be to do with no transport or money so the poorer class cannot get to health care services (Townsend 1992).Too old and not current. Read more so that what you say cannot be criticised!People who are in the middle class may be able to pay for private care ??“ not always and I wouldn??™t bring this up as you only have 2000 words. There are more important issues you need to focus on, also have lots more self confidence to ask questions this is to do with education, knowledge and understanding. The middle class may have more understanding of the National Health Service so are more confident in the situation.
More on this and explain why current society suffers high alcohol consumption etc Exercise ??“ if people work long hours whenh do they get time. Diet ??“ quick easy meals as home late etc. Or education on diet & exercise is poor Inequalities in health in all social classes can be influenced by specific lifestyles and behaviours for example the use of tobacco and the consumption of alcohol (Department of Health2008). What you say here is quite judgemntal when you read it. Think about what you are saying and keep to facts supported by research and ref and try to balance arguments for and against views if you can. Not all council estate children will fail for example! Inequalities in health are the consequences of the way people lead lifestyle when they do this they can causes ill health in all social classes.
People adapt to their environment what they were born into and live in whether it??™s middle class or lower, for people who were born in disadvantaged areas will have poor education, poor housing may have been exposed to violence in their childhood this could have an impact on their mental health later. Children in the lower class have most probably learnt the behaviours and habits of their parents so the inequalities can carry on for generations (DH 2008).
The causes of ill health are complicated some influences on health are much more than social factors there is also cultural and material explanations (Browne2008).Culture
I would be wary of how you word these things. Better to say :As the UK is home to diverse cultures this impacts on the religious and cultural requirements of individuals. Barriers to adequate social and health needs can occur if English is not the first language, and culture can impact health due to roles and responsibilities within the family set up, such as hierarchy. Culture is becoming a very large problem in the UK as there are a lot of poor speaking English people are living here and this is creating difficulty in the National Health Service as there is a lack of translation in health area (New bold etc 2008).
If you use this you need referencesFemales with a language barrier are more likely not to take up opportunities to go to clinics, like ante-and post natal due to lack of translation this helps to see why levels of infant mortality are higher in the ethnic speaking people. Some females with a different culture would only like to see women doctors and there own culture; health care resources are not familiar enough with all different types of cultures Diet is a problem within all areas of social class this could be because, food is cheaper, and more convenient also people have not been given the right health education (DH2008), this may be due to people lifestyle or behaviour of individuals This is causing problems as more children have obesity. ???Obesity in children has risen by 50% in England since 1997(DH2008)???. People in lower class areas may see as eating unhealthy diet as more pleasurable or it could be just the lack of knowledge of the consequences of unhealthy diet (Thrones 2008). Also another problem is that lower class can??™t afford the right types of food example fruit and vegetables. Middle class people could have a professional job, so may not find the time to eat the right diet find it more convenient to eat unhealthy food (Thorne2008).
The National Health Service and the government have increased knowledge to the public to change there attitudes, behaviour, lifestyle. ???Health strategies by the NHS and the government called ???Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (1999)??™ this was to aim at poor health in everyone and to improve the health in the worse off (Thorne 2008). It was believed that Our Healthier Nation (1999) could save unnecessary deaths from Cancer, Coronary heart disease and Stroke and reduce mental illness. NHS then prioritised primary care, the??™ plan was significant but it clearly stated that the social economic and environmental factors to poor health such as poor education, poor housing can affect health inequalities??™ (Thorne 2008). Need various sources ??“ you rely too heavily on Thorne hereGender and ethnicity ??“ think about the key issues here and give more explanation and references to support discussion
Inequalities in health are further exacerbated by ethnicity, Gender inequalities in health, this will include why people may have chosen this lifestyle through culture or is it material or they may have no choice in the way they are living or it may be down to choice why they have chosen.Ethnic inequalities in health are living in poverty this could be poor housing due to unemployment have a low income. Statistics show that black British people are poorer than white British people.
They have been some specific health problems within ethnic inequalities for example Afro-Caribbean origins suffer more with sickle cell disease., also people from Indian and Pakistani are more likely to suffer from things like TB (NHS 2005).
Most ethnic groups have stillbirths and young childre

How Can Self-Disclosure Help in a Counselling Skills Relationship

Self disclosure can have a positive effect during the client??™s self-exploration and self-understanding, or it can stop the communication process. On the positive side, when someone shares a personal issue or concern about themselves, it can be a positive experience in the relationship, mainly because the person is saying, “I trust you” and “I am human too.” It is possible that the self-disclosure can motivate a person to take some positive action, creating a sense that, if ???she??? can do it, then perhaps “I” can too. It also encourages the person to share a problem or concern at a deeper level than he would otherwise do.
Therapists self-disclose for a variety of reasons, all of which reflect immediate goals for the therapy process rather than longer-term goals of the therapeutic outcome. Self-disclosure can increase the perceived similarity between themselves and their client, whereby the therapist can: – Indentify appropriate behaviour or offer alternative ways of thinking and acting- and help them make constructive changes
– Support and strengthen the therapeutic alliance between the parties
– Validate reality or ???normalise??™ the client??™s experiences- which reassures a client
– Satisfy clients who wanted therapist disclosure.
– Reassures the client (e.g. because the counsellor ???got through it??™)
– Demonstrate that the client is ???not alone??™
– Makes the counsellor approachable- as it shows you??™re a ???real??™ person (congruent)Self-disclosure performs several functions. It is a way of gaining information about another person. We want to be able to predict the thoughts and actions of people we know. Self-disclosure is one way to learn about how another person thinks and feels. Once one person engages in self-disclosure, it is implied that the other person will also disclose personal information. Mutual disclosure deepens trust in the relationships and helps both people understand each other more. You also come to feel better about yourself and your relationship when the other person accepts what you tell them.The benefits or advantages of self-disclosure include:
??? Helping the client to not feel alone
??? Decreasing client anxiety
??? Improving the client??™s awareness to different viewpoints
??? Increasing counsellor genuineness so they appear ???real??™ and approachable
??? Reassurance (e.g. because I got through it)
??? Builds trust in the relationship and creates better understanding