Consequences of a College Student Cheating on Exams

Consequences of a college student cheating on exams
Cheating exist in many different forms. No one knows why a person is driven to the option of cheating. Cheating is a form of breaking rules. Cheating can be just a simple quick glance over someone??™s shoulder to see an answer to a question, a desperate need to make a good grade on an assignment, writing answers to questions on a small piece of paper, or paying someone else to do your assignment for you. This act of conduct can lead to many consequences made by ones choice. Over the years with the availability of computers and web sites it has become easier to cheat compared to several years ago. Cheating is not as obvious and easy to detect as it used to be. With the availability of ways to cheat many people do not consider the possibilities and consequences of getting caught.
Cheating has consequences that can affect a person for the rest of their life, just like any other unethical conduct has its consequences. Some consequences are immediate and some can occur later on in life. Consequences that take longer to have an impact may come long after a student has graduated and moved on in life only to find out that the decisions he or she made earlier have come back to haunt them years later. Cheating in college is not a situation to be compared with your high schools days. In college your academic performances are closely monitored, plagiarism is taken serious. Cheating can result in failing in a class, expelled from school or losing your degree. Consequences of Cheating in college can result in a bad recommendation for future jobs. A person who cheats on an exam or assignment risks the embarrassment and shame that goes with being exposed, not mention what a person can do to ones reputation. Some people feel it is ok as long as they do not get caught. One who cheats may think their dishonesty will not affect anyone else. Dishonesty can affect your family, teacher, school, place of work, and friends. Cheating takes away from one who is honest and has taken the time and effort to complete their courses. The one who usually is recognized is the one with the higher score. The consequences you will receive in years to come is the knowledge that could have had if you choose not to cheat.
Cheating has a tendency to lead to more serious behaviors in the future. A student who repeatedly gets away with cheating may begin to think of themselves as non harmful. This can lead them into more serious and more frequent acts of unethical behavior that could follow them into adulthood and into the corporate world, like cheating in other areas of life, the consequences of which could be a lot more serious than just suspension or expulsion. Students who cheat on their exams need to understand that the risks involved are not worth the results. Cheaters do themselves more harm than good because they tend to learn a lot less than their colleagues who actually study the material for an exam. The process of studying and understanding material is what determines how knowledgeable a student is, and will become throughout the rest of his or her life. A student who cheats and ends up graduating the top of their class may find that they don??™t know much more than the student who put forth their best effort and graduated with a lesser grade. Lack of knowledge when displayed in the work place can have even more consequences especially when the knowledge portrayed in actual life is in conflict with the information on a personal resume. A person can be in risk of losing a job, loss of respect, bad reputation, and embarrassment.
A student needs to understand that the effort they put into studying course material and doing their best can be more rewarding than that split second decision to cheat could ever be because the decision to cheat offers temporary success if they are lucky not to get caught, but choosing not to cheat offers success that will last a life time. Knowledge is powerful, knowledge cannot be faked; either you know, or you don??™t know and you will never know by cheating.
The temptation will always face us in everyday life. As person you are the one who wakes up every morning and your will have to ask yourself do you like the person who is staring back at you in the mirror Spending four years, or more, all the time and money is at least worth the effort to try to be as knowledgeable as one can be, come graduation day. It is worth the investment. You can hold your head up and stand tall and be proud of all the accomplishment success that you made possible.

How Can Stuart Halls Analysis of Identity Enable a More Critical Awareness of Cultural Experience

How can Stuart Hall??™s analysis of identity enable a more critical awareness of cultural experienceIn order to assess the contribution that Stuart Hall??™s analysis of identity has had on enabling a more critical awareness of cultural experience, it is first necessary to define and illustrate exactly what is meant by this term ???cultural experience.??™ For the purpose of this essay, I shall take this term to mean the contribution that Stuart Hall??™s work has made to our understanding of the culture and society we currently live in, and that which we have lived through over the last 40 or 50 years. Furthermore, I will explore the struggles and tribulations that Hall faced as a child and relate these to his later work. I shall go on to pay particular focus to the issues of identity, the influences Hall has had on other sociologists (notably Paul Gilroy), his idea of the black diaspora and the critiques he makes regarding culture before assessing what the overall contributions he made to society and our cultural awareness really are.In order to fully understand the views and beliefs that Hall holds, it is imperative to explore his background and early life to gain an awareness of how these views were formed. Hall was born in 1932 in Kinston, Jamaica. From a young age, he was noted as being much darker in skin colour than his siblings. This was seen frequently among the resulting offspring of a marriage between two different classes. For Hall, this mix comprises of the plantation-colonial heritage of his mother and his father??™s Jamaican roots. This said, his father??™s Jamaican roots were one of many, including ???Portuguese, Indian, African and Jewish??™ (Davis, 2004 p.5). Thanks to this vast array of divergent heritage and ancestry, it becomes abundantly clear as to why Hall??™s work placed such an emphasis on the ideas of identity and belonging. From a very young age, he grew up with a tremendous sense of ambiguity regarding who he really was and where he really came from. On top of this, according to Hall himself, a further defining moment in his personal development was the major nervous breakdown his sister experienced when he was 17 (Hall, 1996a p.488). It was the result of a large family row after his parents forbade her from engaging in a relationship with a ???middle-class, but black??™ (Hall, 1996a p.488) student doctor, who had moved to Jamaica from Barbados. Hall was suddenly aware of the complex nature of a colonial culture and how colour and class played a huge role in defining who one was at this time in Jamaica. Hall talked of how he ???learnt about culture, first, as something which is deeply subjective and personal, and at the same moment, as a structure you live??™ (Hall, 1996a p.488).
In 1951, Hall moved to England with his mother to take up a scholarship he had been offered at Merton College, Oxford. During his time at the university, Hall joined the Labour Club and here met Raymond William, John Saville, Ralph Miliband, Raphael Samuel and Edward Thompson. The six of them, along with a couple of Hall??™s other university friends, would go on to set up The New Left Review and The New Reasoner, two radical left wing journal publications. These publications are prevalently believed to be the start of Hall??™s ongoing relationship with sociology and cultural studies (Davis, 2004 pp.7-10).Having identified the reasoning behind Hall??™s work, we can now explore the views he held towards identity. Hall tells us throughout his work that there are two contrasting ways in which cultural identity has been viewed. The first emphasises the view of cultural identity as an intrinsic quality. This belief states that we are born with an identity and this remains with us throughout life. Our identity is formed through common origins or experiences and stresses the cultural contexts that we are born into. Moreover, this definition of identity suggests that it is fully formed and cannot change. In other words, this is essentially the belief that identity is constructed through gender, race, class etc. and the fact that somebody is a woman, or black, or working class dictates the way that they will behave or act throughout life. Jonah Goldstein and Jeremy Rayner discussed this first idea of identity, writing that ???identity itself can be constructed from a number of factors, from race and religion to place of birth??™ (Goldstein and Rayner, 1994 p.367). For Hall, identity is much deeper than this. Although he recognises that ???we all write and speak from a particular place and time, from a history and a culture which is specific??™ (Hall, 1994 p.392), Hall stressed the need to go beyond this simplistic idea of identity in order to truly understand it.
The second way of assessing the concept of identity, and one that is strongly supported by Hall, relies on a progressive view of cultural identity. This view focuses on the differences between people, rather than the similarities they share. Hall states that cultural identity is a matter of ???becoming??™ as well as ???being??™ (Hall, 1994 p.394). In essence, he believes that the future is just as important as the past or the present when it comes to determining one??™s cultural identity. This becomes clear in Hall??™s writing:
???[p]erhaps instead of thinking of identity as an already accomplished fact, which the new cultural practices then represent, we should think, instead, of identity as a ???production??? which is never complete, always in process, and always constituted within, not outside, representation??™ (Hall, 1994 p.392).
This is a view very much shared by Lawrence Grossberg who talks in length about the hybridity of identity. Backing up Hall??™s point, Grossberg informs us that ???the emphasis [of Hall??™s theory] is on the multiplicity of identities and differences rather than on a singular identity and on the connections or articulations between the fragments or differences??™ (Grossberg, 1996 p.89). Grossberg??™s quote helps us further understand exactly what Hall conveys in his writing regarding the diverse nature of identity. This view can similarly be found in the writing of Paul Gilroy, another sociologist who dedicated much of his writing to the idea of black identity. Born nearly 25 years after Hall, there is no doubt that the Jamaican had a considerable influence on the work of Gilroy. Gilroy talked at length about what he called the Black Atlantics ??“ those people across the world from African descent, whose ancestors were expelled from their homeland and into slavery. These are the people Hall refers to when talking about the black diaspora. As a result of this dissemination, these descendents, many of who remained in the countries their relatives were takes to, find their actual identity to be steeped in vagueness and ambiguity (Gilroy, 1993 pp.2-3). If taking one??™s origin as the sole criteria of identity, then these people are regarded as Africans. However, if we look at settlement, acquired cultures and gained traditions etc. then they surely have to considered to be European, American, British and so on. Gilroy uses the example of two planted seeds to further clarify this point. He informs us that two identical seeds planted in two divergent areas, will grow into two very different plants due to the different soil and climate conditions (Smith and Riley, 2009 p.247). It is abundantly clear to see the link Gilroy draws between a developing seed settling in a different place, with different conditions, and a human doing the same.
With this in mind, we can use this view of identity to explore Hall??™s idea of the Black Diaspora. For Hall, the word diaspora does not simply mean the displacement of a group of people from their original homeland. Instead, when he refers to the black diaspora, Hall is getting at the idea of cultural dispersion and the propagation of these traditions and customs around the world as a result. This links befittingly to his second notion of identity. He tells us that ???diaspora identities are those which are constantly producing and reproducing themselves anew, through transformation and difference??™ (Hall, 1994 p402). In other words, diaspora is the ever changing and updating mix of cultures, traditions and practices.
Hall pays particular attention to the group of black artists and filmmakers who migrated to England, when exploring this notion of diaspora. In his lecture ???Black Diaspora Artists in Britain,??™ which was later transcribed, Hall explains how he sees there to have been three defining ???moments??™ in post-was Britain that brought the Black Arts Movement forward. Essentially, he focused largely on two separate ???waves??™ (Hall, 1996b p.4) of diaspora artist coming across to Britain, before briefly touching rather ambiguously on a period he believes could be seen as a ???third wave??™. The first, he tells us, were those artist born in the 1920s and 1930s in distant corners of the British Empire. Arriving in Britain just after the end of the Second World War, and into the 1950s and 1960s, they were the last colonials to do so, fleeing their native countries as a result of great political struggles and with the ambition of becoming recognised artists (Hall, 1996b p.4). This first group believed strongly in Modernism and believed they belonged to the modern movement in Britain, headed largely by the avant-garde, anti-colonialists. This apparent promise of decolonisation acted only to spur the ambitions of these artists further who were noted by Hall as being ???universalist and cosmopolitan is outlook??™ (Hall, 1996b p.6). The aspiration of these early artists was to look to the future rather than their pasts that were steeped in conflict and hardship. Although the cultures, histories and traditions of these artists??™ places of origin still shone through in their work, they did so with a view to going forward and progressing (Hall, 1996b p.15). This group of ???first wave??™ artists was met with a great deal of uncertainty and many became marginalised in society (Hall, 1996b p.5).
The second generation diaspora artists, born in the UK in the 1950s and 1960s as post-colonialists, began to exhibit their work around the 1970s and 1980s. At the time, ???in the place of anti-colonialism, race had become the determining category??™ (Hall, 1996b p.5). Hall believes this was largely down to the status quo of the time. As a result of the awareness of black artists such as Aubrey Williams and Keith Piper paired with events such as the Nottingham Hill Race riots in 1958, the visits to Britain of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Enoch Powell??™s ???Rivers of Blood??™ speech, the racial music of Bob Marley and the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (CARD), the awareness of race issues came to light and anti-racist politics became ubiquitous (Hall, 1996b pp.16-17). The image of the beaten, vulnerable, imprisoned black body became iconic and helped contribute to the rise of the Black Arts movement of the 1980s and 1990s. This was something that had not been seen amongst the ???first wave??™ diaspora, but similarly to this period, the feelings of marginalisation and discrimination were once again present and this generation questioned their identity and sense of belonging, asking questions of ???who are we??™ ???Where do we come from??™ and ???Were do we really belong??™ (Hall, 1996b p.18). What Hall goes on to argue, contrary to the widespread views of the time, is that it was not simply one??™s race, ethnicity and skin colour that characterised their art. Neither was in an artist??™s date of birth, location or decades they were working in that gave them their artistic identity. Furthermore, he stressed that artists of the same generation often do very divergent pieces. Instead, in order to comprehend the motivation behind the art, we need to look back at Hall??™s second definition of identity. The idea of identity as progressive and constantly developing can similarly be applied to the work of these artists. In this case, the tumultuous and turbulent nature of Britain during the 1970s and 1980s, and the highly publicised race issues very much shaped the art of this ???second wave??™ generation and vastly politicised, ???highly graphic [and] iconographic??™ (Hall, 1996b p.17) art became prevalent at the time. These conditions, Hall would argue, gave identity to the artists and their work. In ???New Ethnicities,??™ Hall analysis identity from a different approach and brings in the idea of ethnicity. His focus is on black filmmakers of the 1970s and the two tasks facing them at the time: to get black artists represented in cinema and on television, and to change the adverse image of black actors in the same two fields (Hall, 1996a pp.441-442). It was at this time when the word ???black??™ was commonly used to simply group together a number of people from contrasting ethnicities on the basis of shared experiences and common interests, as much as it related to skin colour. The common interest that this group shared related predominantly to the opposition of racism. Hall explicates the change that he believed materialised in the 1980s as a result of racial awareness and the shift towards the ???Black is beautiful??™ epoch (McRobbie, 1996 p.256). People started to realise the need for greater awareness regarding the whole notion of ethnicity. As Hall writes, ethnicity ???acknowledges the place of history, language and culture in the construction of subjectivity and identity??™ (Hall, 1996a p.446). In other words, ethnicity is not simply about being black or white, but rather recognises the connection that need to be made to other conditions such as cultural history, class or gender to name but a few, in order to fully understand identity. As a result of this new was of thinking, and really for the first time, people started to understand that somebody could for example be black but still British. This is an idea that can be found in many of Hall??™s writings, predating this period, but one that only came to fruition in Britain after many years of tension and conflict relating to culture and identity.It is clear to see the vast impact Stuart Hall has had on the subject of identity and belonging. Through his writing, we can see the palpable role he has played in the advancement of race issues and questions of identity in Britain. His analysis of identity, with particular reference to black artists and filmmakers, has enabled us to view these areas in a different light and with a new understanding. In other words, Hall??™s two concepts of identity have given rise to a new era of representation and an understanding of diverse cultures and histories. His work explores the reasons for cultural differences and bases it within a personal context of his own troubled upbringing in Jamaica. This direct focus with issues of race and identity, allows for a significantly improved awareness of cultural experience; in relation to the way our society works and the changes we have experienced over time, the relations within that society and the problems we still face. It is not difficult to see why Hall has been labeled as the father of cultural studies, with his pioneering and insightful works on an issue of such importance in today??™s society.Word Count: 2,506BibliographyDavis, H. (2004) Understanding Stuart Hall, London: Sage.Gilroy, P. (2004) Between Camps, Bodmin: MPG.Goldstein, J. and Rayner, J. (1994) ???The Politics of Identity in Late Modern Society??™, Theory and Society, vol. 23, no. 3, p.367.Grossberg, L. (1996) Identity and Cultural Studies: Is That All There Is In: Questions of Cultural Identity. London, Sage Publications.Hall, S. (1994) Cultural Identity and Diaspora In. Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. (eds.) Colonial Discourse and Post-colonial Theory. New York, Columbia University Press.Hall, S. (1996a) The Formation of the Diasporic Intellectual. In: Morley, D. and Chen KH. (eds.) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London, Routledge Publishers.Hall, S. (1996b) Black Diaspora Artists in Britain: Three ???Moments??™ in Post-war History. History Workshop Journal, Spring Issue, no. 61, pp.1-24.McRobbie, A. (1996) Looking Back at New Times and its Critics. In: Morley, D. and Chen KH. (eds.) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London, Routledge Publishers.Smith, P. and Riley, A. (2009) Cultural Theory, Oxford: Blackwell.

Consequences of Crime on Society

Consequence of Crime on Society
JUS110 Introduction to Criminal Justice
August 29, 2012Abstract
This paper explores five published articles that report on the causes, effects and possible solutions to crimes which were gathered from various articles found at The articles vary in their definition of crime, its cause, its effect on society and a possible solution or solutions of stopping or at least decreasing these crimes, due to the different author??™s perspectives. This paper will explore if crime is caused due to unemployment and poverty and if so what effect it has on society and possible solutions could help to decrease crime due to this factor. Another aspect of crime this report will examine is the increasing hate crimes, which includes the bullying that is currently in schools and the effects that it is having on the younger generation. Domestic violence and abuse will also be discussed as a possible cause to criminal acts as it appears this is the cause of the increasing female criminal activity today. This report will also explore the increasing number of identity thefts that have become a major part of our society today. There have been much research on this crime in recent years, and many have offered suggestions for solutions, as well as educating the public how to protect their identity. And finally what may be the biggest cause of criminal activity in our society today and have the greatest impact on society, drug abuse.
Keywords: Poverty-unemployment, hate, drugs, domestic violence, Identity theft.It would seem that crime in our country today is growing more rapidly than any other time in history, even though we read reports from the FBI and other organizations that say otherwise. We all see it in our own neighborhood, from the vandalized vacant house next door, to the corner store robbed by some rebellious teens just for kicks. My research is about crime in general. Why in the United States it is increasing, not decreasing as some organizations would have us to believe. Who are these people who commit them Where did they come from Why are they committing these crimes What are the consequences that both the perpetrator and the victim face What are we as a society doing to prevent these crimes, if anything from happening in our own neighborhoods, to our own family Should we as a society, not be sincerely concerned about what is going on in our own back yards To understand the criminal mind, we must research both sides of the story. Every incarcerated person has his or her own story, and many of these inmates committed their crimes through desperation to support and provide for their families.
In today??™s society with the increased media, movies glorifying crime and the violent music being played across the nation are factors that could be the cause of our younger generation to be fascinated with the criminal lifestyle. Law enforcement does its best to keep crime under control. However, crime still has a huge effect on all our cultures of society.
There are many types of crime. Each has a distinctive aim and meaning. In the South where I grew up the Ku Klux Klan murdered people of a different race from themselves in order to attempt to control the race population. Organized crime was huge in the early 1900s, and as children watch the story of Bonnie & Clyde, Al Capone and all the other gangsters and mobsters of that time, they find crime to be exciting, and a fast way to ???make a buck.???During my incarceration, I found that what I had been raised to believe that crime was predominantly committed by ???black folks and poor white trash,??? was a gross misconception. There are just as many of one race as another who committed crime, and they come from all walks of life.
Guilty of Poverty
Lisa Gray-Garcia tells her story of poverty, homelessness and crime in her book Criminal Of Poverty – Growing Up Homeless In America. Lisa had a childhood of struggles after her father left her at a very young age; her mother struggled to make ends meet, and Lisa turned to shoplifting. Lisa??™s life of crime began out of desperation, a need to be accepted into a society that looked down on ???poor??? people. Many of the incarcerated women came from the same situation as Lisa, broken homes, struggling single parents, and being involved with the wrong crowd, and eventually get into the drug scene. Many scholars and law enforcers ask “what impact does poverty has on the criminal” Through my own experiences of crime and incarceration, it is my opinion that people living in poverty can be swayed by their environment to a life of crime. Many incarcerated women were unwed when having their children, coming from broken homes themselves. It was my experience that women whom I met in prison stories were the same of why they entered into crime. Most of the female inmates had no formal education, and had no other means of supporting their families. Many incarcerated women turned to prostitution, which led into a deadlier game, ???drugs”. They began selling drugs and then using drugs, they had to find a way to fund their increasing need of their preferred drug, for most was Meth.
To help stop this insanity, more educational programs, job training programs, and mental health programs need to be established to help take these girls and women off the streets and out of this lifestyle. They need to be given direction, and put hope back into their lives. ???Criminal of Poverty lays bare the devastating effects of inheriting a life of poverty, as well the real redemption and power in finding your voice.” ??“ Michelle Tea, author of Rose of No Mans Land and Valencia. (Gray-Garcia, L., 2007).
Hate Crimes On Campus
As we hear more and more of hate crimes being committed at our Universities and Colleges, we have to ask ourselves if education is being deprived due to these crimes. Over the past five years, it has been found that there are no campus??™ that are immune to hate crimes. Even though, the U.S. Department of Justice has taken legal actions have been taken to students who engage in hate crimes, they still exist and seem to worse. Hate crimes range from threats on bombings on campus to bullying and threatening to kill other students. More than not, hate crimes are left unreported, as many students, faculty and staff have no idea of what your report. Many students, who have alternative lifestyles, live in a state where there are no laws that protect them from discrimination based on sexual orientation. This may cause fear of reporting the hate crime due to putting them at risk of further discrimination. (Wessler & Moss, 2001).The effect that hate crimes have on our society is that learning and growth is being shattered. Fear and intimidation is infused into not only the students, but faculty and staff, as well. The environment of the campus is changed from a positive one to negative one full of tension and fear.It has been recommended that a training program be implemented for campus police. Also, suggested is that civil rights officers should be appointed for each campus and taught to respond and investigate hate crimes for the safety and protection of all students on and off campus. All staff and faculty should encourage students to report hate crimes, whether the student is directly involved or not. (Wessler, S., & Moss, M. 2001).
Domestic Violence and Abuse
According to a study done by the Spouse Abuse Replication Program (SARP), offenders who committed domestic-violence demonstrated a specific tendency to intensify or diminish the severity of their assaults against the same victim. It is assumed that domestic violence is ensued by the male gender; however, these offenses are becoming increasing instigated by female offenders, as well.
According to a report by Sherman and Berk in 1984 found that by the incarceration of domestic violence offenders lowered the risk of repeat offenders of domestic violence. From this study, it was determined that the greater portion of these violent domestic offenders who had prior official criminal histories had been implicated in nonviolent criminal behavior, in addition to domestic crimes. (Piquero, Fagan & Moffitt, 2005)
The domestic-violence offender is a threat to society and brings bodily harm and fear, not only to his or her victim, but to society in general. According to Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence prosecutors need to be aware and mindful that the perpetrator of domestic violence has but one goal and that is to control his or her victim without concern of the victims welfare and more times than not, not considering the age or health of their victim. It is recommended that prosecutor educate themselves of these perpetrators and be aware that it is the perpetrator who is at fault, not the victim. The prosecutor needs to rely on the testimony of law enforcement rather than the victim, to help prevention of retaliation on the victim from the offender. (Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 2004).
Identity Theft
Identity theft according to the National Institute of Justice is probably one of the most crucial crimes in America because the information the perpetrator obtains an ???estimated 9 million or more incidents occur each year. Recently the public has become more aware of this crime due to the intense media coverage. Federal Government and many states have passed regulations to enforce criminal sanctions in order to combat this growing crime. Virtually every individual is susceptible to identity theft, most of these crimes have been found to be committed by people who are close to the victim. Such a relative, a close friend, or an employee who has access to the victim??™s personal data.
The victims of these crimes lose money, credibility, as well as their identity. The actual effect of this crime is not yet known. To date there needs to be more??? research relating to prevention, including reduction of harm to individual victims, financial institutions, and society. (National Institute of Justice, 2012).
Drugs and Its Impact on Crime
Drugs have infiltrated our country to such a degree that it affects even our youngest of our society, the children Drugs generate more and more of today??™s youth??™s become trafficker??™s, even at the early of nine and ten years old. Drugs have a huge negative impact on our nation??™s economy, our healthcare and criminal justice system. According to a report from the Office of National Drug Control Policy, ???President Obama committed over $10 billion dollars for drug education programs, and support for expanding access to drug treatment for addicts.??? According to El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC), the production of Meth and its trafficking were originally found mostly in California, with an estimated 85% production rate, Texas, Utah and Arizona were also found to be heavy traffickers of this deadly drug. Most of the purveyors were found affiliated with motorcycles gangs and Independents such as the Mexican Cartels. However, it has been proven that these factories have increased and are now found in the Midwest, the Pacific Northwest, and even in portions of the Southeast. The Mid-Atlantic states and England are the newest of these traffickers. (Swetlow, K., 2003).
Children living in these meth labs are susceptible to abuse, neglect, fires and explosions, social issues and risks of being exposed to firearms. Chemicals used to cook Meth are extremely toxic and allow for fumes and vapors in the air and spills, all which are dangerous to ones health. A child can inhale and swallow these fumes and can actually become overdosed by them, which could cause, heart, kidney, brain, liver, cancer among many other life-threatening diseases. 15 percent of met labs are discovered due to an explosion. Spills can cause skin damage and can affect the respiratory and central nervous system. (Governor??™s Office of Criminal Justice Planning)
To protect children from these crimes is ???CPS workers, probation officers, law enforcement, attorneys and healthcare providers work together to remove the children from these establishments/homes???. In case the child remains with a one of the parents the prosecutors plays a major role in protecting the children. He or she can recommend the? type of probation, drug treatment, parenting classes and educating the parent of a different lifestyle, in which will be healthier for the child. (Swetlow, K., 2003).
In conclusion, even though many agencies and organizations report that crime is decreasing, many believe it has increased instead. Each community needs to work together with local law enforcement, neighbors and other groups to help stop crime in their own backyards. There is an old saying ???safety comes in numbers.??? Citizens need to research to find what local organizations are available and find their resources to help control these crimes.ReferencesGray-Garcia, L. (2007). Criminal of poverty – growing up homeless in America. San Francisco: City Lights Foundation Books. Retrieved from, S., & Moss, M. (2001). Hate crimes on campus-the problem and efforts to confront it. Informally published manuscript, Center for the Prevention of Hate Violence, University of Southern Maine, Portland, Maine, Retrieved from Piquero, A. R., Fagan, J., & Moffitt, T. E. National Institute of Justice/NCJRS, Office of Justice Programs. (2005). Assessing the offending activity of criminal domestic violence suspects: Offense specialization, escalation, and de-escalation evidence from the spouse assault replication program, final report (NCJ212298). Retrieved from Studies/research reports website: Coalition Against Domestic Violence, U. S. Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs. (2004). Guidelines for prosecution of domestic violence cases (236797). Retrieved from Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence website: of Research, Development and Evaluation. (2012). Identity theft research review. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice website:
Swetlow, K. (2003). El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC). Children at clandestine methamphetamine labs: Helping meths youngest victims [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from™s Office of Criminal Justice Planning, n.d., Multi-Agency Partnerships: Linking Drugs with Child Endangerment, Sacramento, CA, p. 9. Retrieved from

How Can the Different Ways of Knowing Help Us to Distinguish Between Something That Is True and Something That Is Believed to Be True

4. How can the different ways of knowing help us to distinguish between something that is true and something that is believed to be true
???We create knowledge ourselves, through the four ways of knowing;??? (Dombrowski, 91-92) sense perception, language, reasoning and emotion. These ways of knowing are also the means by which knowledge claims are judged for their credibility, validity and most importantly, their likelihood to be true. When a knowledge claim is made, three scenarios are presented with the least problematic being that the claim is false based on the four ways of knowing coupled with past experiences. A claim is not said to be true just because it is false. The aim of this essay will be to illuminate how certainty, confidence and the convincing nature of claims distinguish between claims believed to be true and claims that are known to be true.???True??? and ???false???, in simplicity, can be viewed as divisors for separating knowledge claims or beliefs but in reality, we view ???true??? and ???false??? as the extreme boundaries of a scale that determines with reason whether or not claims should be accepted as true or not. In history, where we make value claims, ???Claims that embed evaluations on a scale that is not calibrated in measurable units??? (Dombrowski, 106), there seems to be a lot of subjectivity as these claims themselves are subjective. They hold some truth because they are actually made from observational claims. In the story of Nazi Anschluss with Austria, where a plebiscite was held to ask whether Austria wanted to become a part of Nazi Germany and the Nazi??™s ???claim to have received 99.73% of the vote??? (???Anschluss???), two value claims that could come out will be that the Austrians loved Nazis and wanted to be a part of it or that the Austrians feared Nazi Germany and did not have any other option than to be part of Nazis. These two opinions show the subjective nature of such areas but these statements cannot be taken as false. The fact that there is more than one view affects the certainty of the claim. However both claims are convincing and so we can only believe that they are true since reason does not prove any to be false.Even though there are tests for truth, (Coherence test, correspondence test and pragmatic test) these tests themselves do have their flaws. In actual fact, even after using the tests, we still have cases where different people arrive at different results. In this light, truth should be looked at as truth for all (Something majority accepts to be true) and not truth for me (Something only you accept as true). Many will disagree with the existence of truth for all as truth is often referred to as relative but rational claims, ???claims that follow steps in rational thinking??? (Dombrowski, 105) do sometimes present truth for all where the certainty is high. In mathematics for example, we make use of rational claims. An example will be in the claim:x2 > x for all x > or =1 and for all x < or = -1This will always be true so if we are given a claim that states that for x=0.5, x2 >x, we can use reasoning and past experience to tell that it is false. The use of the precise language of math removes all grey areas and the fact that it passes the pragmatic and correspondence test go on to our emotions that it is certain. Precision of the language assure that the claim is convincing and so there we are able to know that the claim is true.Many scientists of today suggest that all ???we observe, including our life forms, came about by chance and probability.??? (Trainer) If that is the case, then why do we have so much order in the things that exist in our world It is believed that ???Fibonacci sequence of numbers appears in nature in the form of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. This is noticed in branching in trees, arrangement of leaves on a stem and even the arrangement of a pine cone.??? (???Fibonacci Numbers???) This is the very nature of science; science searches for patterns and the regularities in nature and from these generalizations are made. This just tells us that science makes observational claims, ???statements about what we observe.??? (Dombrowski, 105) Could Fibonacci numbers suggest that there is actually someone controlling the world and its creation This could give people reason to believe in the existence of a supreme being but then again how convincing is the evidence. All the examples given above could be coincidence and it will be very hard to prove otherwise considering the number of items that will have to go under consideration.Those who believe the world came about as a result of chance base their argument on the big bang theory, a theory which suggests that ???all that exists in the universe emerged from one tiny particle of imponderable substance.???(Trainer) This theory, backed by the Freidmann equations suggests that ???the world was created by rapid expansions and collision of alpha particles??? (Trainer) and may seem plausible because it employs the use of mathematics a universal and accurate language. However as a theory it has not been proven to be right or wrong. In light of this we can believe that it is true because it passes the pragmatic test (Does it work) but not know certainly whether it is true. The example about Fibonacci numbers however causes me to wonder. Does our search for knowledge cause us to find order in things that have no order What does this mean to the reliability of our reasoning as a way of knowing If we are bent on explaining our world, then how much does the quest to explain our world cause us to be biased with our reasoning The fact that we are limited in sense perception affects reasoning. Though the other ways of knowing have helped us to distinguish this claim from claims that are false, the lack of sense perception and the resultant limitation of our reasoning leave the claim as believed to be true as we cannot show the degree of certainty to which the claim can be taken.In religion, many claims made are metaphysical claims, ???statements about nature of reality outside the physical reality??? (Dombrowski, 106), such as claims about the soul or God. These claims cannot be tested using any of our truth tests. Does this however mean that they are all false Robert Pennock says in his book Tower of Babel that ???The first thing and most basic characteristic about the supernatural agents and powers is that they are above and beyond the natural world and its agents and powers.??? (Pennock, 289) He implies that there is no link between what we see and the explanation we derive for it or how our mind interprets it. This tells us that in beliefs we cannot know for certain whether the claim is true and we can only believe it based on reasoning and our emotions.An attempt to reason out such claims will however refer us to past experiences which make the claim more acceptable. The phenomenon of interference of light, which explains how a water bubble on the water could show different arrays of colour ???as a result of constructive interference between light reflected from the two surfaces of thin film??? (Giancoli, 679), makes use of accurate mathematical equations making the phenomenon believable. But how will it be possible to measure the thickness of the bubble at these points. Even though we cannot link what we see with the reason we have for it, we are able to view it as possible because our intuition tells us that it may be right. Language goes on to back the fact that it might be true. Hence such claims are not presumed to be false but are believed to be true based on how convincing the evidence provided is. Physics, together with math, uses its concepts to explain how the theory is possible. However, is this suggesting that once a knowledge claim can work, it immediately passes the false barrier If we accept everything that works for us as truth, then truth for all will not be attainable as we all think about things differently. Hence in such areas as religion and some aspects of science, where we deal with metaphysical claims, we cannot know what is true considering the fact that these are claims beyond the physical. Hence we can only believe they are true depending on how convincing they are.Do the above paragraphs tell us those lacking in any of the four ways of knowing cannot know truth Could a person who looses all their sensing ability know truth This makes us wonder, are all the ways of knowing equally important Once someone looses their senses, there is no way someone can know what is true. If you lack the ability to observe, then you lack the ability to know truth since claims are made based on observation and truth is built from this. Depending on how confident you are about the claim you believe it is true. This makes confidence important in distinguishing between knowing truth and believing something is true.In order for one to know that something is true, all four ways of knowing must accept that it is true. If this is not achieved, we look into whether it is believed to be true. In looking on whether it is believed to be true issues of how convincing it is and its certainty. However in a claim I feel that if something is not known to be true, it is up to reason to make sure it is not untrue before it is accepted as believed to be true.Word Count: 1600Bibliography ??? Dombrowski, Eileen, Lena Rotenburg, and Mimi Bick. Theory of Knowledge Course Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. ??? Trainer, Matthew. Big Question. 11 Mar. 2008. Web. 20 Sep. 2009 ??? Giancoli, Douglas C. Physics. 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2005. 679. ??? ???Fibonacci Numbers???. Wikipedia ??“ The Free Encyclopedia. 13 Oct. 2009. 14 Oct. 2009. ??? ???Anschluss???. Wikipedia ??“ The Free Encyclopedia. 13 Oct. 2009. 14 Oct. 2009. <> ??? Pennock, Robert. Tower of Babel: The evidence Against the New Creationism. Oregon: MIT Press, 1999.

Conservation and Preservation

Check Point:
Conservation and PreservationConservation is the ability to harvest resources in an environmentally friendly way as to give back to the resources you take for economical or environmental development. This in turn helps provide sustainability.
Preservation is leaving natural resources in their original state; untouched, unused and unharmed in any way. I do believe that humans can harvest forest resources in an environmentally friendly way because of the knowledge and technology that we have today and the willingness to do so. With this being said, I am inclined to be for conservation as opposed to preservation because I feel that we would be able to provide equal usefulness between humans and forest resources. It??™s the concept of giving back what we take from the forest resources, or any resources for that matter. This would help provide a substantial route to environmental sustainability and still allow humans to live with the benefits of resources that we use and need to survive. It would also help create jobs and make us less dependent on foreign resources that we spend billions of dollars on every year.
The Bridger-Teton National Forest, aka: Management Area 71, is a prime example of how we can put an environmentally friendly resource plan into action and conserve what many hold so dear to their hearts in the region. The technology that environmentalists have today would ensure that we do not compromise the integrity of the ecosystem and that we would be just as valuable to those resources as they are to us.
With the threats on our nation??™s economic prosperity, national security and our lives I feel that conservation is the best route to go.

How Can the Way in Which We Organize Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schema Help Us Improve Our Memory

How Can The Way In Which We Organize Our thinking By Using Mental Images, Concepts And Schema Help Us Improve Our MemoryIn this assignment I will discuss that there are ways in which we can organize the way we think and improve our memory, first I will talk about the use of mental images moving on to discussing different concepts and finally incorporating structured pre conceived ideas (schemas).Mental images or iconic thought , is your minds way of forming and thinking in pictures, you use mental picture in everyday life evens when recalling what someone looks like the use of mental pictures can be very effective when learning a new language .In starting with psychology (2010) Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson (1975) developed an idea called the key word technique by which you take a word ,for example ???poubelle??? (pronounced pooh-bell) this is the French word for bin in English and form a large bizarre mental picture,
broken down into English the French word ???poubelle??? would be the equivalent of pooh and bell, this is classed as your key word because it is the English word or words, that sounds like the French word you are learning . You then form a mental picture from the English translation you have made, picture a bin in the shape of a bell and when lifting the lid holding your nose because of the pooh smell.
Raugh and Atkinson (1975) tried and tested this out on a group of participants which were asked to learn a list of 60 Spanish words, half the participants were taught the key word technique and the other half the controlled group were not. Later when asked to recall those words the key word group managed to recall 88% of words compared to only 28% of the controlled group that did not learn the key word technique. This results in showing that the use of mental images can help aid us to improve our memory.
Moving on, Concepts are our minds way of organizing our thoughts which help us put them into categories, this can be helpful when looking at memory, take the wordCat
Take a few seconds try to remember the words on the list cover them over and write down as many as you can recall. Once you have done this look again at the words and categorize the words into ???cue??? groups of animals, food, flowers, and events. Then repeat the test and see if you can recall the list better the words have been grouped together and
You now have a ???cue??? word to help.
Weston Bousfield (1953) tried a more complex version of this, by asking participants to learn a list of 60 words that were split into four categories, the words were not in any order but participants seemed to remember the words in groups so the word apple would be followed with peach lemon and strawberry because .the ???cue??? word would be ???fruit???
This shows that we can remember the information given but when a ???cue??? word is introduced we tend to store the information better because of the way in which our memory has organized it , it seems the cue word has a knock on affect and causes our memory to recall more of the words.
Finally in starting with psychology (2010) page 43 it states a schema ???is a mental framework of knowledge developed as a result of experience???, basically your memory is like a huge archive where it holds all kind of information about everyday life for example when you think a doctor you associate the words hospital, medicine, surgery, even fear this gives you your doctors schema because your memory is recalling information from your past experience on what you associate with the word doctor.
Look at the passage below
???It is important we do this every day??¦ Sometimes people only do it once on other occasions it may be done twice or even more??¦ A mirror can aid us to see what we are doing??¦. and once finished you put it away until the process needs to be repeated. If it is not done correctly it can cause problems and be an expensive mistake???
You would look at this and most people would not understand what the passage was about but to give a title of ???cleaning your teeth??? re read the passage again and things should fall into place just based on your previous knowledge schema of cleaning your teeth.
John Bransford and Marcia Johnson (1972) carried out a similar experiment to show you how schemas can help in our understanding and recall of information, participants were given a passage to read and asked to recall it as correctly as possible, half the participants were given a title the other half of participants were not, most people reported they had a great difficulty in recalling the information without a title. By adding a title it ???cues??? your brain to recall information that you have already stored previously more easily. On times our memory can be distorted by previous knowledge of what we already know this is called reconstructive memory, you could think of a situation where you have had an argument with someone and when coming to recall the event you would not recall everything exactly so your mind would take adjusting information adding thoughts that never happened or even taking things away that you wish you never said although sometimes this can have devastating effect.
In conclusion to this essay by looking at mental pictures concepts and schemas we can see that the way in which we think and act in everyday life plays a big part in our memories, even by using a title or one word can help aid us in memory recall, and with the use of forming and thinking in picture it can help us improve our memory for simple things such as a shopping lists to more complicated things like revising for that important exam.

Conservation and Preservation

Each individual must determine between conservation and preservation before clasping the type of issues that exist. Conservation is the action of conserving. This includes the protection of our wildlife and also restoring wildlife and the natural resources. Preservation calls for existing features of land to be retained and preserved. Both Conservation and preservation have comparable meanings. The phrase Conservation has been used for management and control over any area for future using. The phrase Preservation refers to securing land that is not touched by man and for it to remain that way. This is for the children can enjoy the natural beauty in the original state.
The earth has a natural resource that we use. Whenever there is mining and uprooting of natural resources it will affect both plants and animals. There is no way to keep this from actually occurring. This is known as a cause and effect. When is too much is the question that is often asked. When is the right time to say stop and allow the earth to restore its natural resources and allow some forest in their natural state for us to enjoy.
My personal opinion on the whole situation is enough is enough. There are enough natural resources to go around. There are enough natural resources to go around. Every inch of the Earth does not have to be mined in order to achieve what we need. The Bridger Teton forest is going through the same issue. They are in a conflict that the land needs to be mined for the natural resources such as oil. The conflict is that ???Bridger Teton is one of the last untouched temper echo systems in the 48 states. They also have the last great wild life herds. Making roads putting in pipelines takes away the natural beauty.

How Can the Way in Which We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemas Help to Improve Memory

How can the way in which we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help to improve memory As adults we mainly use a semantic thought process, this is thinking in words. We also perform many day to day tasks using an enactive thought process, such as driving a car. We do this automatically as if the memory is stored in our muscles. However there are further thought processes we can use to improve our memory and recall such as iconic thought, concept formation and schemas. Iconic thought is the process of thinking in pictures and it has been shown that this is a useful tool in recollecting information. A key word technique has been developed that is particularly useful when learning a foreign language. This involves finding an English word that sounds like the foreign word then picturing a mental image to cue the recall of the word. Raugh and Atkinson (1975) found this key word technique to be successful when participants attempted to learn sixty Spanish words. Half of their participants were taught this technique and showed an 88% recall. Compare this with a 28% recall with those not taught this technique and it would seem to be a successful aid in improving memory. Another technique using mental image to improve recall is a type of memory strategy known as mnemonics. A well known poem is actually a mnemonic and is a useful cue to remember a certain sequence of events. For example the mnemonic to remember the colour and sequence of the rainbow is Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain. The first letter of each word is the first letter of a colour of the rainbow in the same order. Mnemonics have been used since ancient times; one such was called the Method of Loci which entailed linking a mental image to a location the person knew. These methods of using iconic thought show how successful mnemonics can be when used as a cue to recall information, as forming an image fixes it into our memory. A second successful way of improving our memory is using concept formation. This involves putting thoughts and words into categories and these categories then being used as prompts to remembering pieces of information. Mandler (1967) showed that we can remember information if we first organise it. Two groups of people were shown 100 cards with different words on. One group was told only to sort the cards whereas the second group were told to remember as many words as they could, as well as categorise the cards. Mandler interestingly found that there was no difference in recall percentage between the two groups, suggesting that we categorise information automatically and by doing so we increase our performance of recall. A way of thinking of schemas is imagining each category of thought to be a file which, when opened, contains all the relevant information inside. Schemas enable us to file away all of our experiences so that when faced with new encounters we can take this filed information and process it so that we behave appropriately to the situation. Bransford & Johnson (1972) proved the importance of schemas. They gave two groups of participants a passage of text which they were asked to read and recall what information they could. The passage detailed an everyday task but only one group was given the title of ???Washing Clothes??™. The other group recorded difficulty in understanding the text, let alone being able to remember it. The group given the title were able to access their schema of washing clothes to recall the passage successfully. This experiment found that this file name of washing clothes was the trigger to remembering past experiences of the process so that the information could be recalled accurately. Taking a wider view we are able to see the advantage of being able to recall additional information of an experience or situation by initially accessing our schema. It must be noted however that as helpful as schemas can be in drawing on past experiences and prompting our memory they can also fool us and lead us to make incorrect assumptions. We can often overlook what is actually in front of us and see what we expect to be there instead. This is known as a perceptual set. Further to this we can also distort an experience using our pre conceived knowledge instead of the facts, known as reconstructive set. An experiment was conducted by Brewster (1981) to see how schemas can distort our memories. Participants were taken into an office for 35 seconds. In a second room they were given a memory test on the first. The participants showed a higher recall of items that would fit into a generic office schema, such as a desk, notebook and calendar. Less failed to spot incompatible items in the room, such as a brick and pliers. These items would have been overlooked by the participant??™s memories as they did not fit in with the pre conceived office schema. Additional to these findings, some participants even recalled seeing a telephone in the room despite there not being one present. This shows how easily our schemas can lead us astray. It is clear to see that we are able to improve our memory using certain techniques such as a key word, a mnemonic and grouping thoughts into categories to give us a prompt to recall further information. Schemas, or filings of thoughts, used as a cue can also be a successful memory aid but we must also consider how much validity we can place on these schemas due to the tendency to disregard information or presume for ourselves what is not necessarily there.Word Count 930ReferencesSpoors, P., Dyer, E.W. and Finlay, L. (2007) Starting with Psychology, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

Conservation of a Species

Randal Dykstra
May 29, 2011
BIO 100
Michael Rothrock Jr.
Turtles in Trouble
Researchers have designated 2011 as the Year of the Turtle. The reason for this designation is that, according to researchers and supporters, more than half of the species of turtles are in trouble. In fact many of these species are nearing extinction. Of the many reasons listed for the demise of these species, nearly all of them are of human origin.
One of the problems, according to ScienceDaily (February 15, 2011), is that, ???The sex of some species of turtles is determined by the temperature of the nest: warm nests produce females, cooler nests, males.??? Scientists have speculated that due to global warming, more females are being produced than males. This imbalance leads to fewer turtles in the next generation, and so on. While global warming cannot be fully blamed on humanity, much of it is believed to be caused by burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, causing more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This problem affects all of the planet, and especially those turtles in this way.
Other problems caused by humans are loss of habitat and exploitation. Many people around the world consume turtles as a delicacy, and others as a staple food. Turtles, along with other species have lost their habitats to colonization by humanity, building their own habitats over the existing habitats of animals. Sprawling cities have long been taking over the areas once occupied solely by animals. These communities also have high energy demands that lead to more production of greenhouse gasses, which exacerbates global warming.
These are the main problems destroying many, if not all of the species of turtles. Yet, these problems are all within the scope of humans to correct. There is not a problem that mankind has created that he is not able to reverse.
Recently, there has been a lot of progress in reversing the effects of global warming, but there remains a long way to go. One of the main ways to correct this damage to the whole earth is to reduce our carbon footprint. For some that is as simple as putting up with a few less luxuries, such as adjusting the temperature on the thermostat. Many strides have been made in making heating and cooling units more efficient in recent years. Automobile manufacturers have made many changes to vehicles to make them more efficient. These and other adjustments by humans are good beginnings in reversing the trend of global warming.
Along the same vein, the tree harvesting industry can focus on replanting trees as they harvest. This would help to maintain the habitat for animals, including turtles, as well as working to increase photosynthesis. Increased photosynthesis will use up more of the carbon dioxide in the air, reducing one of the main greenhouse gasses. The benefits of an action such as this would not only help to reduce global warming, but ensure trees for future harvest. This is one instance which would benefit not only the whole of nature, but mankind as well.
Besides the issue of global warming, mankind can help the turtle by protecting its habitat. Many things damage the turtle??™s habitat, among them oil spills and building communities where they live. Chemical spills and chemical runoff from such things as fertilizer damage many natural habitats. Mankind has come up with ways to grow more crops on less land, which would lead one to believe that there is more land available for natural habitat. However, because of the amount of fertilization that is required for the ground to produce those extra crops, there is a lot of runoff into lands and waterways. These chemicals not only damage the animals directly, like turtles that inhabit those ecosystems, but can also damage the plants that they consume for their food. As these animals consume this food, they are also ingesting the chemicals that are in the plants. The chemicals also can destroy the animals as they build up over time.
Possible solutions to chemical runoff could be continuing to develop better, more hybrid strains of plants. Another good possibility is crop rotation. Rotating the crops in a field allows a farmer to plant a crop one year that enriches the soil without chemicals followed by crops that require those nutrients to grow. This method helps to keep the areas around the fields from being polluted by runoff.
According to scientists, turtles have been on the planet for around 220 million years. In that time they have adapted in many ways to ensure the survivability of their species. They have evolved a remarkably hard shell for protection that has remained virtually unchanged by evolution in the time they have been on the earth. (Turtles in Trouble, 2011) Other adaptations include delayed sexual maturity, high fecundity combined with high juvenile mortality, and a long adult life-span with low natural adult mortality. All of these have left the turtle vulnerable to human exploitation.
In many places all over the world, people consume turtles, and often use their shells for simple decorations. The practice of harvesting turtles for any use is one that has often been uncontrolled. The solution to this problem is simple. Regulations controlling the harvesting of turtles should be established and enforced. These laws would, of course, be controlled by local governments for their populations.
The world is facing a turtle survival crisis unprecedented in its severity and risk. Humans are the problem, and must therefore also be the solution. Without concerted conservation action, many of the world??™s turtles will become extinct within the next few decades. It is now up to us to prevent the loss of these remarkable, unique jewels of evolution.
Without intervention, countless species will be lost. We humans need to work together for the survival of turtles throughout the world, to understand the risks and threats turtles face, to define survival and conservation objectives, and to develop the successful management strategies and organizational alliances that can help us reach those goals.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station (2011, February 15). Turtle populations affected by climate, habitat loss and overexploitation. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from /releases/2011/02/110202102117.htm
Turtle Conservation Coalition [Rhodin, A.G.J., Walde, A.D., Horne, B.D., van Dijk, P.P., Blanck, T., and Hudson, R. (Eds.)]. 2011. Turtles in Trouble: The World??™s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles??”2011. Lunenburg, MA: IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, Turtle Conservation Fund, Turtle Survival Alliance, Turtle Conservancy, Chelonian Research Foundation, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, and San Diego Zoo Global, 54 pp.

How Can the Way in Which We Organise Our Thinking by Using Mental Images, Concepts and Schemas Help Us Improve Our Memory.

How Can the way in which we organise our thinking by using mental images, concepts and schemas help us improve our memory.In Chapter 3 of The Open University Starting with Psychology course book (2010), the section on organisation and improved recall explains that how we organise our thinking can help us improve our memory. It shows us how mnemonics, or memory tools can help us remember difficult information in a way that it is easier to recall. Mental Images, where a mental picture is used to give a clue to recall a memory. Concepts, where information is put into categories so memory can be aided by guessing against stored past experiences and Schemas when information is filed in topics for future reference are 3 ways in which we can organise our memory. This is a brief explanation of how each method works.Firstly Mental Images. Although most people use semantic thought that is they think in words, if we use a a colourful and bizarre mental image of what we wish to remember it takes more time and effort to fix it in our memory and will therefore give us an additional clue to the information when we try to remember it. Two mnemonics which are examples of mental imaging are the Method of Loci and the Keyword Technique.
The Method of Loci is a system that was devised in Ancient Greece around 500BC by a poet Simonides. The items to be remembered are pictured in a sequence of familiar locations like around the house or local streets but are imagined in bizarre and colourful situations. This has proved to be a powerful aid to memory and is still used over 2000 years later.
The Keyword technique was developed by Michael Rough and Richard Atkinson (1975), it can be helpful when learning new words in another language. The foreign word to be learnt is substituted with an English word or words that sound like the foreign word, then a mental image is formed, linking these words and the definition, again the more vivid and exaggerated the more effective it can be. In the course book the example given is the French word ???poubelle???, which means bin, the example given shows a mental image of a man lifting the lid of a bin, the bin shaped like a bell, the man is holding his nose and it is obvious the ???poubelle??? is very smelly. In Michael Rough and Richard Atkins experiment 2 groups of students were learning Spanish, both groups were asked to learn 60 Spanish words but ? of the participants were taught the Key Word Technique first. When they were tested those who had learnt the technique scored and average of 88% compared to 28% who had not. This shows what an excellent way that organising our thoughts can help improve our memory.Secondly concepts, this is where we categorise and sub categorise items as an aid to improve memory, is so common that we are not usually aware that we are doing it. For example, in the past if we saw a Jack Russell it was placed in the dog subcategory and dog was placed in the animal category, we then can use this stored information then when we see another small animal, say a spaniel, our past experiences tell us it has 4 legs and is hairy so it is likely to be a dog, like the Jack Russell and therefore to be an animal as well. In 1953 Weston Bousfield, researching this technique, asked participants to learn 60 words, although these words could be divided into categories they were presented randomly. The participants without being asked divided the words into themes, which in turn helped them to remember the words.
George Mandler 1967 experiment asked 2 groups of participants given 100 cards with words on them,1/2 were told to just sort them into categories and the other to memorise them while they sorted them, when tested both groups remembered the same amount of words this results shows us that by organising information, we learn it without actually make a conscious effort to so this is another way in which we can improve our memory.Lastly a schema is a mental framework, similar to concepts but it covers a greater scope. Its where we organise information on objects, experiences, and people, into structured clusters. We can then gain cues and hints from other items already stored within the schema to help interpret and retain new information.
Jean Piaget was credited with developing this idea, he worked for over 50 years with children studying the way they think and learn and identified they did this by forming schemas which they had gained from the experiences they had of the world around them.
In John Bransford and Marcia Johnson 1972 experiment, participants were given a passage to read, this passage had no title which made it very hard to understand or recall with any detail, yet when the same passage was given to a second group but titled ???Washing Clothes??? the readers were able to understand and remember in some detail as the schema, washing clothes allowed the information to make sense and be stored appropriately and recalled more easily. So we can see that organising our thinking into Schemas helps improve memory as they provide an organisational basis so information is stored with related information on a specific theme therefore giving a short cut to retrieving the information together everything else associated with the object or experience. I have that shown how memory can be improved by using mnemonics such as mental images,which make the memory more significant, concepts, which categorise our thought and make them easier to recall and schemas which aid memory by filing it so as it triggers other useful memories stored from past experiences.
Spoors, P., Dyer, EW and Finlay, L. (2010) Starting with Psychology Milton Keynes, The Open university.